Phylogenetic Position of the Hexactinellida Within the Phylum Porifera Based on the Amino Acid Sequence of the Protein Kinase C from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni

  title={Phylogenetic Position of the Hexactinellida Within the Phylum Porifera Based on the Amino Acid Sequence of the Protein Kinase C from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni},
  author={Michael Kruse and Sally P. Leys and Isabel M. Müller and Werner E. G. M{\"u}ller},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
Abstract. Recent analyses of genes encoding proteins typical for multicellularity, especially adhesion molecules and receptors, favor the conclusion that all metazoan phyla, including the phylum Porifera (sponges), are of monophyletic origin. However, none of these data includes cDNA encoding a protein from the sponge class Hexactinellida. We have now isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a protein kinase C, belonging to the C subfamily (cPKC), from the hexactinellid sponge… 

Evolutionary relationships of Metazoa within the eukaryotes based on molecular data from Porifera

It seems evident that the unicellular eukaryotes existed at an earlier stage of evolution, and the Plantae and especially the Fungi and the Metazoa only appeared later.

Evolutionary relationship of Porifera within the eukaryotes

It is concluded that the baikalian sponges, which have been studied here, are of monophyletic origin and the data suggest that the endemic species S. papyracea is the phylogenetic oldest still extant endemic baikian sponge species.

Molecular Evolution of the Metazoan Extracellular Matrix: Cloning and Expression of Structural Proteins from the Demosponges Suberites domuncula and Geodia cydonium

The ligand for one of the autopomorphic characters of Metazoa, the single-transmembrane receptor protein with the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from G. cydonium, is identified and it is documented that expression of the fibrous ECM molecule collagen is regulated by the characteristic metazoan morphogens myotrophin and endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide.

The Molecular Basis for the Evolution of the Metazoan Bodyplan: Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Morphogenesis in Marine Demosponges

This study demonstrates for the first time that an extracellular matrix molecule, galectin, induces a morphogenetic process in sponges which is very likely caused by a LIM/homeobox protein.

Analysis of the sponge [Porifera] gene repertoire: implications for the evolution of the metazoan body plan.

The primmorph system, aggregated cells that retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate, has been used to demonstrate that a homeobox-containing gene, Iroquois, is expressed during canal formation in primmorphs, and a neuronal receptor has been identified, which indicates the existence of a primordial neuronal network already in Porifera.

Isolation and cloning of a C-type lectin from the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus: a putative aggregation factor.

The purification of a cell adhesion molecule with a size of 34 kDa (in its native form; 24 kDa after deglycosylation) from the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes vastus is described and it is proposed that the A.vastus lectins might bind to the cell membrane by their hydrophobic segment and might interact with carbohydrate units on the surface of the other cells/syncytia.

Conflicting phylogenetic signals at the base of the metazoan tree

It is demonstrated that variable rates of evolution among lineages, sensitivity of the analyses to taxon selection, and conflicts in the phylogenetic signal contained in different amino acid sequences obscure the phylogenetically associations among the early branching Metazoa.

Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa

The polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify almost the entire nucleic acid sequence of the 18S rDNA from several hexactinellid, demosponge and calcareous sponge species to suggest that sponges are paraphyletic, the Calcarea being more related to monophyletic Eumetazoa than to the siliceous spongees.

Review: How was metazoan threshold crossed? The hypothetical Urmetazoa.

  • W. Müller
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2001



Molecular phylogenetic position of hexactinellid sponges in relation to the Protista and Demospongiae.

Using four computational methods for phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences, it is found that the hexactinellid sponge-demosponge cluster is most closely related to Volvox and Acanthamoeba.

Cloning of Hsp70 genes from the marine sponges Sycon raphanus (Calcarea) and Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni (Hexactinellida). An approach to solve the phylogeny of sponges

The phylogenetic relationships among the three classes of the Porifera—Demospongiae, Calcarea and Hexactinellida—are still unresolved, despite the use of molecular analyses of rRNA, and the genes for the 70 kDa heat shock protein [Hsp70] were isolated from Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni and Sycon raphanus and compared to that previously isolated from the demosponge Geodia cydonium.

On the monophyletic evolution of the metazoa.

The deduced amino acid sequence of G. cydonium showed high homology to chicken and to the Antennapedia sequence from Drosophila melanogaster, which supports the view that the kingdom Animalia is of monophyletic origin.

Early evolution of metazoan serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases: identification of selected kinases in marine sponges.

The construction of the phylogenetic tree revealed that the PTK derived from the branch including the KRSvSD kinase, revealing the first molecular approach to elucidate the origin of metazoan PTK within the PS/TK superfamily.

An analysis of the origin of metazoans, using comparisons of partial sequences of the 28S RNA, reveals an early emergence of triploblasts.

Compared sequences from the 5′ end of the large subunit ribosomal RNA of a number of protists, fungi, plants and metazoans, including all diploblastic phyla, showed a much more ancient origin of triploblasts with respect to diplobasts than classically assumed.

Studies on Hexactinellid Sponges. III. The Taxonomic Status of Hexactinellida Within the Porifera

The new findings support Reid's 1958 allocation of classes in his subdivision of the phylum, but the names that he employed, Nuda and Gelatinosa, are considered inappropriate for present use because of the hypothetical basis of their origin and the lack of descriptive value of the names in the present context.

Evolution of early Metazoa: phylogenetic status of the Hexactinellida within the phylum of Porifera (sponges).

The evolution of the Metazoa from their protozoan ancestors is one of the greatest puzzles of phylogeny (Willmer 1994; Cavalier-Smith et al. 1996). The emergence of multicellular animals has been

Chimeric conundra: are nucleomorphs and chromists monophyletic or polyphyletic?

The phylogenetic analysis suggests that cryptomonad and chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs may be related to each other and raises the possibility that both phyla may have diverged from a common ancestral chimeric cell that originated by a single endosymbiosis involving an algal endosYmbiont related to the ancestor of red algae.

Origin of the Metazoa

A tree is derived that supports a monophyletic origin for the Metazoa using a method less sensitive to artifacts of tree reconstruction and which indicates that the Deuterostomia are monophylets and the Annelida-Mollusca lineage is the sister group of an arthropod subgroup.

Monophyletic origins of the metazoa: an evolutionary link with fungi

A phylogenetic framework inferred from comparisons of small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences describes the evolutionary origin and early branching patterns of the kingdom Animalia and shows the animal lineage is monophyletic and includes choanoflagellates.