Phylogenetic Analyses of Cretaceous Fossils Related to Chloranthaceae and their Evolutionary Implications

  title={Phylogenetic Analyses of Cretaceous Fossils Related to Chloranthaceae and their Evolutionary Implications},
  author={James A. Doyle and Peter K. Endress},
  journal={The Botanical Review},
Chloranthaceae were one of the first common lines during the early radiation of angiosperms, possibly reflecting adaptation to more open habitats. Phylogenetic analyses clarify the position of Cretaceous mesofossils in molecular trees of Recent taxa. Plants that produced Asteropollis pollen, with tepals adnate to a single carpel, are nested in crown group Chloranthaceae with Hedyosmum; Canrightiopsis, with three stamens and no perianth, is sister to Sarcandra and Chloranthus; and Canrightia is… 
Refined Interpretation of the Pistillate Flower in Ceratophyllum Sheds Fresh Light on Gynoecium Evolution in Angiosperms
The interpretation of the glandular appendage as a tepal or staminode homologue makes the Ceratophyllum ovary inferior, thus resembling (semi)inferior ovaries of most Chloranthaceae and potentially related fossils Canrightia and Zlatkocarpus.
Chloranthus genome provides insights into the early diversification of angiosperms
A high-quality chromosome-level genome of Chloranthus spicatus is assembled to resolve enigmatic evolutionary relationships, as well as explore patterns of genome evolution among the major lineages of mesangiosperms.
The Chloranthus sessilifolius genome provides insight into early diversification of angiosperms
The high-quality genome of a member of the Chloranthales lineage (Chloranthus sessilifolius) is reported and it is found that polyploidization events in different Mesangiospermae lineage are mutually independent.
Hedyosmum-Like Fossils in the Early Cretaceous Diversification of Angiosperms
Hedyflora confirms the divergence of the Hedyosmum lineage from other Chloranthaceae very early in the angiosperm radiation but refutes these early fossils as evidence of extant HedyOSmum in the Early Cretaceous.
How deep is the conflict between molecular and fossil evidence on the age of angiosperms?
Paleobotanical evidence on the age of angiosperms is evaluated, showing how fossils provide crucial data for clarifying the situation and examining recently recognized biases in molecular dating to argue that a thoughtful integration of fossil and molecular evidence could help resolve these conflicts.
Inflorescence Structure in Laurales—Stable and Flexible Patterns
Structural results show that there are trends of occurrence of certain patterns in families or subclades within families, and these may be useful in a morphological matrix of magnoliids (see work by Doyle and Endress for basal angiosperms).
Amber- and plant-bearing deposits from the Cenomanian of Neau (Mayenne, France)
A new Cenomanian amber- and plant-bearing deposit has been discovered at Neau, in the Mayenne department (France). The Cenomanian fossiliferous lignites are located in karst filling in a substratum
Phylogenetic analysis of fossil flowers using an angiosperm‐wide data set: proof‐of‐concept and challenges ahead
This study provides an objective approach to test for the phylogenetic position of fossil flowers across angiosperms, and may provide a complementary tool for paleobotanical studies, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of fossil phylogenetic relationships in angiosperm families.
Evolution and patterning of the ovule in seed plants
  • P. Rudall
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2021
Both well‐established and recent theories of ovule and seed evolution are discussed and potential gaps in comparative data are highlighted that will usefully enhance the understanding of evolutionary transitions and developmental mechanisms.
Underlying mechanisms of development: pollen wall ontogeny in Chloranthus japonicus and a reconsideration of pollen ontogeny in early-diverging lineages of angiosperms
It is shown that exine development unfolds by two physico-chemical processes (phase separation and self-assembly) after genomic control, revealing an interplay between genomic and physical processes.


Integrating Early Cretaceous Fossils into the Phylogeny of Living Angiosperms: ANITA Lines and Relatives of Chloranthaceae
The results reaffirm the early diversity of Chloranthaceae and clarify their floral evolution, in which a shift to unisexual flowers preceded loss of the perianth.
Floral Evolution in Chloranthaceae: Implications of a Morphological Phylogenetic Analysis
Analysis of extant taxa indicates that the lobed stamen of Chloranthus evolved by subdivision of one stamen, as in Sarcandra, but addition of Late Cretaceous androecia with free lobes supports fusion of three stamens.
Morphological Phylogenetic Analysis of Living and Fossil Chloranthaceae
A parsimony analysis was carried out using morphological data from 38 extant and six fossil species, and the resulting cladograms support the monophyly of the Chloranthaceae as well as the four extant genera Chloranthus, Sarcandra, Ascarina, and Hedyosmum.
Big Survivors With Small Flowers: Fossil History and Evolution of Laurales and Chloranthaceae
The results support monophyly of the family and indicate the presence of two distinct clades: one Chloranthus/Sarcandra-clade and one Ascarina/Hedyosmum-Clade, which indicate that the common ancestor of Chloranthaceae included half-shrubs with naked unisexual flowers in spicate inflorescence.
Canrightiopsis, a new Early Cretaceous fossil with Clavatipollenites-type pollen bridge the gap between extinct Canrightia and extant Chloranthaceae
A phylogenetic analysis resolves Canrightiopsis as a close relative of extant Chloranthaceae, particularly close to extant Ch chloranthus and Sarcandra, and shares several critical features with extant Ascarina including monoaperturate pollen and beaded supratectal ornamentation of the pollen wall.
Reconstructing the ancestral angiosperm flower and its initial specializations.
This work evaluates early floral evolution in angiosperms by parsimony optimization of morphological characters on phylogenetic trees derived from morphological and molecular data and indicates that the simple flowers of the newly recognized basal groups are reduced rather than primitively simple.
Angiosperm Clades in the Potomac Group: What Have We Learned since 1977?
In the late Potomac (middle to late Albian), the rise of tricolpate pollen and local dominance of angiosperm leaves mark the influx of near-basal eudicot clades.
Early evolution of angiosperm pollen as inferred from molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses
Results refute the view that granular structure supports a relationship between angiosperms and Gnetales, Bennettitales, and Pentoxylon and refute the views that alveolar exines and reticulate‐columellar Triassic Crinopolles pollen now seem equally likely.
Chloranthus-like stamens from the upper Cretaceous of New Jersey
Fossil angiospermous stamens with in situ pollen from the Turonian of New Jersey are described and assigned to the Chloranthaceae, which is one of several families that have been of special interest in studies of the origin and early diversification of angiosperms.
Floral evidence for Cretaceous chloranthoid angiosperms
The Cretaceous material clarifies the homologies of chloranthoid androecial structures and provides an improved basis for interpreting the pollination biology in this enigmatic group of early angiosperms.