Phrenic nerve injury complicating closed cardiovascular surgical procedures for congenital heart disease.

@article{Zhao1985PhrenicNI,
  title={Phrenic nerve injury complicating closed cardiovascular surgical procedures for congenital heart disease.},
  author={Hai Xia Zhao and R. S. D'agostino and Paul T. Pitlick and NormanE. Shumway and D. C. Miller},
  journal={The Annals of thoracic surgery},
  year={1985},
  volume={39 5},
  pages={
          445-9
        }
}
Phrenic nerve injury (PNI) with resulting hemidiaphragmatic paralysis occurred in 19 (2.1 +/- 0.5%) of 891 closed cardiac surgical procedures during a twenty-three-year period. Diagnosis was confirmed by standard radiographic criteria. Phrenic nerve injury was most commonly noted following systemic-pulmonary artery anastomosis, ligation of persistent ductus arteriosus plus pulmonary artery banding, and atrial septectomy. Most patients were managed conservatively (nasotracheal or orotracheal… CONTINUE READING
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