Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement

  title={Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement},
  author={John Allen},
  journal={Physiological Measurement},
  pages={R1 - R39}
  • John Allen
  • Published 20 February 2007
  • Medicine
  • Physiological Measurement
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. It is often used non-invasively to make measurements at the skin surface. The PPG waveform comprises a pulsatile (‘AC’) physiological waveform attributed to cardiac synchronous changes in the blood volume with each heart beat, and is superimposed on a slowly varying (‘DC’) baseline with various lower frequency components attributed to… 

Photoplethysmography: Design, Development, Analysis and Applications in Clinical and Physiological Measurement – A Review

A ZigBee based wireless PPG system for real time monitoring and assessment of cardiovascular and respiratory systems has been designed and developed and shows PPG can be an alternative to the traditional methods.

Imaging Photoplethysmography: Signal Waveform Analysis

The iPPG signal obtained using a camera is processed to extract its waveform features such as areas and time parameters that will make possible a non-contact estimation of arterial stiffness and early diagnosis of many cardiovascular pathologies.

Can Photoplethysmography Replace Arterial Blood Pressure in the Assessment of Blood Pressure?

Analysis of the similarities in time and frequency domains between ABP and PPG signals for normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects and the feasibility of the classification of subjects suggests that PPG holds most informative features that exist in ABP.

Photoplethysmography: Towards a non-invasive pressure measurement technique

  • H. NjoumP. Kyriacou
  • Medicine
    2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
  • 2016
Preliminary findings suggest that APV could be used as a potential non-invasive continuous method of blood pressure measurement.

Sources of Inaccuracy in Photoplethysmography for Continuous Cardiovascular Monitoring

A comprehensive review of the literature is presented that aims to summarize these noise sources for future PPG device development for use in health monitoring.

The use of photoplethysmography for assessing hypertension

Although the technology is not yet mature, it is anticipated that in the near future, accurate, continuous BP measurements may be available from mobile and wearable devices given their vast potential.

Photoplethysmography Revisited: From Contact to Noncontact, From Point to Imaging

This study presents an overview of the wide range of IPPG systems currently being introduced along with examples of their application in various physiological assessments and believes that the widespread acceptance ofIPPG is happening, and it will dramatically accelerate the promotion of this healthcare model in the near future.

Optimal filter characterization for photoplethysmography-based pulse rate and pulse power spectrum estimation

The spectral coherence and the signal-to-noise ratio between isolated PPG pulses and the raw PPG signal is analyzed in order to determine the optimal filter to enhance pulse detection fromRaw PPG for improved heart rate estimation and characterize the spectral content of the PPG pulse.

A comparative study of photoplethysmogram and piezoelectric plethysmogram signals.

In this paper, a number of features for PPG and PZPG signals are acquired and compared and both systems are able to extract the pulse rate (PR) and pulse rate variability (PRV), accurately with an estimation error of less than 10%.

Heart Rate Estimation From Wrist-Worn Photoplethysmography: A Review

A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art research on heart rate estimation from wrist-worn PPG signals and brief theoretical details about PPG sensing and other potential applications–biometric identification, disease diagnosis using wrist PPG are presented.



Dual-Channel Photoplethysmography to Monitor Local Changes in Vascular Stiffness

  • J. FooC. Lim
  • Medicine
    Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
  • 2006
Findings herein suggest that PTT-D derived from the customised PPG system shows potential and can be used as an alternative to conventional peripheral-based PTT and possibly as a direct assessment of arterial distensibility or PWV variations as it does not include PEP in its time-related computations.

Skin photoplethysmography--a review.

Photoplethysmography Assessments in Cardiovascular Disease

The principle of photoplethysmography, optical methods and instrumentation systems, computer-based pulse wave analysis, and in each case related to the clinical application of vascular disease detection are described.

Respiratory variations in the reflection mode photoplethysmographic signal. Relationships to peripheral venous pressure

Although respiratory-induced variations in PVP and PPG showed a close correlation in amplitude variation, a causal relationship between the signals could not be demonstrated and it was hypothesised that the filling of peripheral veins is one of the important factors involved.

Photoplethysmography. Part 2. Influence of light source wavelength.

Analysis of the measurement results provided evidence that the use of shorter wavelengths in PPG (AC) for monitoring skin perfusion changes could be applicable, and temperature-dependent optical characteristics of blood-free skin tissue may explain the limited ability of the DC component of PPG to monitor skin perfusions changes.

Value of Quantitative Photoplethysmography for Functional Vascular Diagnostics

Self-calibrating photoplethysmographs allow a quantitative evaluation of all measurement data and hence a precise analysis of both venous and arterial hemodynamics and should be expanded to the arterial side as well.

Non-invasive monitoring of muscle blood perfusion by photoplethysmography: evaluation of a new application.

The results of this study indicate the potentiality of the PPG method for non-invasive measurement of local muscle perfusion, although some considerations still have to be accounted for, such as influence of temperature on blood perfusion.

Age and Gender Do Not Influence the Ability to Detect Respiration by Photoplethysmography

Clinically important information is demonstrated implying the possibility to register qualitative PPGr signals for respiration monitoring, regardless of age and gender.

Non-invasive continuous estimation of blood flow changes in human patellar bone

Pulsatile blood flow in the patellar bone can be assessed with the present photoplethysmographic technique and it is shown that the AC component of the PPG signal originates from pulsations ofBlood flow in a rigid structure and not necessarily from volume pulsations.

Monitoring of respiratory rate in postoperative care using a new photoplethysmographic technique

The results indicate that PPG has the potential to be useful for monitoring respiratory rate in the postoperative period, and compares it with the established technique, transthoracic impedance.