Photoperiod as a modifying and limiting factor in the expression of avian circannual rhythms.

@article{Gwinner1989PhotoperiodAA,
  title={Photoperiod as a modifying and limiting factor in the expression of avian circannual rhythms.},
  author={Eberhard Gwinner},
  journal={Journal of biological rhythms},
  year={1989},
  volume={4 2},
  pages={237-50}
}
In three species of birds that migrate long distances, the annual rhythms of gonadal activity, molt, and migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) persist for more than 1 year under certain constant conditions. The most important zeitgeber for these circannual rhythms is the annual cycle of photoperiod, which adjusts the overall period of circannual rhythms to exactly 1 year and also provides for the appropriate adjustment of seasonal activities to the temporal structure of the environment. This is… CONTINUE READING
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