Photons and gravitons in perturbation theory: Derivation of maxwell's and einstein's equations

  title={Photons and gravitons in perturbation theory: Derivation of maxwell's and einstein's equations},
  author={Steven Weinberg},
  journal={Physical Review},
The S matrix for photon and graviton processes is studied in perturbation theory, under the restriction that the only creation and annihilation operators for massless particles of spin j allowed in the interaction are those for the physical states with helicity ±j. The most general covariant fields that can be constructed from such operators cannot represent real photon and graviton interactions, because they give amplitudes for emission or absorption of massless particles which vanish as pj… 

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