# Photons and Gravitons in S-Matrix Theory: Derivation of Charge Conservation and Equality of Gravitational and Inertial Mass

@article{Weinberg1964PhotonsAG, title={Photons and Gravitons in S-Matrix Theory: Derivation of Charge Conservation and Equality of Gravitational and Inertial Mass}, author={Steven Weinberg}, journal={Physical Review}, year={1964}, volume={135}, pages={338-345} }

We give a purely S-matrix-theoretic proof of the conservation of charge (defined by the strength of soft photon interactions) and the equality of gravitational and inertial mass. Our only assumptions are the Lorentz invariance and pole structure of the S matrix, and the zero mass and spins 1 and 2 of the photon and graviton. We also prove that Lorentz invariance alone requires the S matrix for emission of a massless particle of arbitrary integer spin to satisfy a “mass-shell gauge invariance…

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