Photons and Gravitons in S-Matrix Theory: Derivation of Charge Conservation and Equality of Gravitational and Inertial Mass

  title={Photons and Gravitons in S-Matrix Theory: Derivation of Charge Conservation and Equality of Gravitational and Inertial Mass},
  author={Steven Weinberg},
  journal={Physical Review},
  • S. Weinberg
  • Published 24 August 1964
  • Physics
  • Physical Review
We give a purely S-matrix-theoretic proof of the conservation of charge (defined by the strength of soft photon interactions) and the equality of gravitational and inertial mass. Our only assumptions are the Lorentz invariance and pole structure of the S matrix, and the zero mass and spins 1 and 2 of the photon and graviton. We also prove that Lorentz invariance alone requires the S matrix for emission of a massless particle of arbitrary integer spin to satisfy a “mass-shell gauge invariance… 
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  • P. Davies, P. Falkowski
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1982
The status of the gravitational principle of equivalence is obscure on the atomic scale, where quantum processes are relevant. On the assumption that a fundamental principle ought to apply to


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