Photonic crystal light collectors in fish retina improve vision in turbid water.

@article{Kreysing2012PhotonicCL,
  title={Photonic crystal light collectors in fish retina improve vision in turbid water.},
  author={Moritz Kreysing and Roland Pusch and Dorothee Haverkate and Meik Landsberger and Jacob Engelmann and Janina Ruiter and Carlos Mora-Ferrer and Elke Ulbricht and J. Grosche and Kristian Franze and Stefan Streif and Sarah Schumacher and Felix Makarov and Johannes Kacza and J. Guck and Hartwig Wolburg and James K. Bowmaker and Gerhard von der Emde and Stefan Schuster and Hans-Joachim Wagner and Andreas Reichenbach and Mike Francke},
  journal={Science},
  year={2012},
  volume={336 6089},
  pages={1700-3}
}
Despite their diversity, vertebrate retinae are specialized to maximize either photon catch or visual acuity. Here, we describe a functional type that is optimized for neither purpose. In the retina of the elephantnose fish (Gnathonemus petersii), cone photoreceptors are grouped together within reflecting, photonic crystal-lined cups acting as macroreceptors, but rod photoreceptors are positioned behind these reflectors. This unusual arrangement matches rod and cone sensitivity for detecting… CONTINUE READING