Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.

@article{Fang2012PhotonicAE,
  title={Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.},
  author={Kejie Fang and Zongfu Yu and Shanhui Fan},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2012},
  volume={108 15},
  pages={153901}
}
We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation. 
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