Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy of quantum gases

@article{Pino2010PhotonCF,
  title={Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy of quantum gases},
  author={J. M. Pino and Robert Wild and Philip Makotyn and Deborah S. Jin and Eric Allin Cornell},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2010},
  volume={83},
  pages={033615}
}
We demonstrate a photon-counting technique for detecting Bragg excitation of an ultracold gas of atoms. By measuring the response of the light field to the atoms, we derive a signal independent of traditional time-of-flight atom-imaging techniques. With heterodyne detection we achieve photon shot-noise limited detection of the amplification or depletion of one of the Bragg laser beams. Photon counting for Bragg spectroscopy will be useful for strongly interacting gases where atom-imaging… 

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