Photoinactivation of the Coronavirus Surrogate phi6 by Visible Light

  title={Photoinactivation of the Coronavirus Surrogate phi6 by Visible Light},
  author={Petra Vatter and Katharina Hoenes and Martin Hessling},
  journal={Photochemistry and Photobiology},
To stop the coronavirus spread, new inactivation approaches are being sought that can also be applied in the presence of humans or even on humans. Here, we investigate the effect of visible violet light with a wavelength of 405 nm on the coronavirus surrogate phi6 in two aqueous solutions that are free of photosensitizers. A dose of 1300 J cm−2 of 405 nm irradiation reduces the phi6 plaque‐forming unit concentration by three log‐levels. The next step should be similar visible light… 

Blue light inactivation of the enveloped RNA virus Phi6

The results support speculations about blue-susceptibility of coronaviruses, which might allow to employ blue light for infection prevention or even therapeutic applications.

Review of Virus Inactivation by Visible Light

It appears that the riboflavin concentration in the medium has an influence on the log-reduction doses of virus experiments, and it should be critically evaluated whether the currently published virus sensitivities are really only intrinsic properties of the virus, or whether the medium played a significant role.

High Intensity Violet Light (405 nm) Inactivates Coronaviruses in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and on Surfaces

It can be concluded that 405 nm irradiation has an antiviral effect on coronaviruses, but special attention should be paid to the presence of photosensitizers in the virus environment in future experiments.

Photoinactivation of Phage Phi6 as a SARS-CoV-2 Model in Wastewater: Evidence of Efficacy and Safety

PDI proved to be an efficient approach in the inactivation of the viruses, and the PDI-treated effluent showed no toxicity to native aquatic microorganisms under realistic dilution conditions, thus endorsing PDI as an efficient and safe tertiary WW disinfection method.

Antiviral activity of nano-monocaprin against Phi6 as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2

The use of nano-monocaprin (NMC) in inhibiting enveloped and unenveloped bacteriophages and to determine if NMC is toxic to mammalian cells, used MTS assay to assess its IC50 for HPDE and HeLa cell lines.

Ethanol Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses: Structural and Surface Chemistry Insights into Phi6.

This study demonstrates the link between ethanol-induced viral inactivation and the nanostructural and chemical transformations of the model virus Phi6, an 85 nm diameter lipid-enveloped bacterial virus that is commonly used as surrogate for human pathogenic viruses.

Viral inactivation by light

This review highlights the anti-viral utility of radiant methods from the aspects of ionizing radiation, including high energy ultraviolet, gamma ray, X-ray, and neutron, and non-ionizing photo-inactivation, including lasers and blue light.

SARS-CoV-2 surrogate (Phi6) environmental persistence within free-living amoebae.

It is suggested that amoebae could contribute to the environmental persistence of SARS-CoV-2, including disinfection processes, and could be a successful model system for understanding respiratory virus-eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels.

Bacteriophage Phi 6 as Surrogate and Human-Harmless Viruses to Study Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Approaches

The use of phage Φ 6 seems to be useful as coronavirus surrogate to assess the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 approaches, providing important insights concerning COVID-19 pandemic and human public health.

Development and verification of a test rig for inactivation of bacteria and (corona-) viruses by UVC air disinfection systems

Abstract The ongoing coronavirus pandemic spreads through airborne transmission and is therefore difficult to contain. However, coronaviruses are highly sensitive to UVC, so UVC air disinfection



Ultraviolet irradiation doses for coronavirus inactivation – review and analysis of coronavirus photoinactivation studies

Since coronaviruses do not differ structurally to any great exent, the SARS-CoV-2 virus – as well as possible future mutations – will very likely be highly UV sensitive, so that common UV disinfection procedures will inactivate the new SARS-CoVs without any further modification.

Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

The aim of this review is to discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

Inactivation of murine leukaemia virus by exposure to visible light.

Inactivation of Streptomyces phage ɸC31 by 405 nm light

The reduced susceptibility of viruses in minimal media, compared with that of other microorganisms, provides further evidence that the antimicrobial action of 405 nm light is predominantly due to the photo-excitation of endogenous photosensitive molecules such as porphyrins within susceptible microorganisms.

Photoinactivation Sensitivity of Staphylococcus carnosus to Visible‐light Irradiation as a Function of Wavelength

This study investigates the photoinactivation sensitivity of Staphylococcus carnosus to selected wavelengths between 390 and 500 nm in 10‐ to 25‐nm intervals and points to flavins as responsible photosensitizers, which furthermore seem to be involved at violet wavelengths.


  • C. D. LytleA. P. BudaczE. KevilleS. MillerK. N. Prodouz
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Photochemistry and photobiology
  • 1991
Photoinactivation of four bacteriophages, φX174, T7, PRD1, and φ6, by the dye merocyanine 540 (MC540) should be most effective with lipid‐containing viruses, since it is primarily lipophilic (but also binds to proteins).

Trends and targets in antiviral phototherapy.

  • A. WieheJessica M O'BrienM. Senge
  • Biology, Medicine
    Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • 2019
This review focuses on the PDI of viruses as an alternative treatment in antiviral therapy, but also as a means of viral decontamination, covering mainly the literature of the last decade.

New Proof-of-Concept in Viral Inactivation: Virucidal Efficacy of 405 nm Light Against Feline Calicivirus as a Model for Norovirus Decontamination

Investigation of potential inactivation effects of 405 nm light on the NoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV), found enhanced inactivation when the virus is present in organically-rich biologically-relevant media, could aid in the development of 405-nm light technology for effective NoV decontamination within the hospital environment.

Review of the Comparative Susceptibility of Microbial Species to Photoinactivation Using 380–480 nm Violet‐Blue Light

Evaluation of the dose required for a 1 log10 reduction of key bacteria compared to population, irradiance and wavelength indicated that microbial titer and light intensity had little effect on the dose of 405 nm light required; however, linear analysis indicated organisms exposed to longer wavelengths of violet‐blue light may require greater doses for inactivation.

Mechanism of Visible Light Phototoxicity on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum

The results support the assumption that the phototoxic effect of blue light on the periopathogenic bacteria is oxygen dependent and that hydroxyl radicals play an important role in this process.