New insights into myosin phosphorylation during cyclic nucleotide-mediated smooth muscle relaxation
Contraction of glycerinated porcine carotid artery smooth muscle in response to calcium (20 microM), calmodulin (10 microM), and MgATP was associated with phosphorylation of the 20,000-dalton myosin light chain (LC20) to an average stoichiometry of 1.47 mol of PO4/mol of LC20. Tryptic and chymotryptic phosphopeptide maps of the mono- and diphosphorylated forms of LC20 purified from skinned muscles demonstrated the presence of a single phosphopeptide in all cases. Phosphoamino acid analysis indicated that the monophosphorylated form contained primarily phosphoserine, whereas the diphosphorylated form contained both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. Thiophosphorylation of LC20 by adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) resulted in the incorporation of 1 mol of thiophosphate into phosphoserine. Thiophosphorylated LC20 could be subsequently phosphorylated at a threonine residue to a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of PO4/mol of LC20 by incubation in the presence of MgATP, calcium, and calmodulin. The extent of multiple site phosphorylation of LC20 was dependent upon both the ionic strength and the free Mg2+ concentration in the muscle bath; increasing either ionic strength (0.07-0.15 M) or [Mg2+] (1-20 mM) resulted in lower stoichiometries of LC20 phosphorylation. The effect of multiple site phosphorylation on contraction was examined in muscles which were seqentially phosphorylated at serine followed by threonine. Full activation (21 degrees C) of both isometric force (1.4 newtons/cm2) and unloaded shortening velocity (0.016 L0/s) was achieved following thiophosphorylation to 1.1 mol of PO4/mol of LC20. No further activation of either isometric force (1.5 newtons/cm2) or unloaded shortening velocity (0.015 L0/s) occurred following phosphorylation to 1.7 mol of PO4/mol of LC20.