Does salmon calcitonin cause cancer? A review and meta-analysis
One of the causes of insensitivity to androgen ablation therapy in prostate cancer is thought to be attributable to elevated neuropeptides secreted by neuroendocrine cells in the tumor mass. Calcitonin (CT), one of these neuropeptides, is reported to be associated with the growth of prostate cancer. There is an increase in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation as prostate cancer progresses to a more advanced and androgen-independent disease. We examined the effect of CT on signal transduction and the relation between CT and early-response genes in the human androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line, DU145. The basal phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which is a key kinase in the mediation of growth factor-induced mitogenesis in prostate cancer cells, was constitutively up-regulated. N-[2-(4-bromocinnamyl) aminoethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H89), a specific inhibitor of protein kinase A, potentiated the effects of more increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. CT induced the inhibition of this MAP kinase phosphorylation, and this effect was completely abolished by pretreatment with H89. Our findings demonstrate that CT caused the inhibition of constitutive MAP kinase phosphorylation in a protein kinase A-dependent manner in DU145. The transient increase of c-fos expression was detected after CT treatment, whereas expression of c-jun RNA was down-regulated after CT treatment. These results suggest that CT may regulate early-response genes, c-fos and c-jun, via a MAP kinase cascade. In conclusion, these findings suggest that DU145 might be a useful model as a therapeutic approach of neuropeptides in androgen-independent prostatic carcinoma.