Differential effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls on [3H]arachidonic acid release in rat cerebellar granule neurons.
Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), activates neutrophils to produce superoxide anion (O2-) by a mechanism that involves phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides; however, subsequent signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether phospholipase A2-dependent release of arachidonic acid is involved in PCB-induced O2- production. We measured O2- production in vitro in glycogen-elicited, rat neutrophils in the presence and absence of the inhibitors of phospholipase A2: quinacrine, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), and manoalide. All three agents significantly decreased the amount of O2- detected during stimulation of neutrophils with Aroclor 1242. Similar inhibition occurred when neutrophils were activated with the classical stimuli, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate. The effects of BPB and manoalide were not a result of cytotoxicity or other nonspecific effects, although data suggest that quinacrine is an O2- scavenger. Significant release of 3H-arachidonic acid preceded O2- production in neutrophils stimulated with Aroclor 1242 or fMLP. Manoalide, at a concentration that abolished O2- production, also inhibited the release of 3H-arachidonate. Aspirin, zileuton, or WEB 2086 did not affect Aroclor 1242-induced O2- production, suggesting that eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor are not needed for neutrophil activation by PCBs. Activation of phospholipase A2 and O2- production do not appear to involve the Ah receptor because a congener with low affinity, but not one with high affinity for this receptor, stimulated the release of arachidonic acid and O2-. These data suggest that Aroclor 1242 stimulates neutrophils to produce O2- by a mechanism that involves phospholipase A2-dependent release of arachidonic acid.