In the present study, the effect and mechanism of periostin on renal proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation of lupus mice were investigated. MRL /lpr mice, known as lupus mice, were revealed to show enhanced periostin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney accompanied by increased serum platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Again, cultured mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were treated with PDGF, then periostin, and PCNA and secreted fibronectin were detected. The results showed that intracellular periostin and PCNA were respectively enhanced by 2.691 and 2.308 times in PDGF-treated MMC cells at 6 h after stimulation. In addition, secreted fibronectin was increased by 1.442 times. Next, the transfection of periostin shRNA vector in PDGF-stimulated MMC cells effectively suppressed periostin, PCNA and secreted fibronectin by 45.27%, 47.75%, and 39.95%, compared with PDGF-stimulated cells transfected with control vector. Furthermore, it was found that PDGF increased the expression of phospho-Akt (Ser 473) from 30 min to 6 h in MMCs. LY294002 effectively inhibited phospho-Akt (Ser 473) expression caused by PDGF stimulation. Then, periostin, PCNA, and fibronectin were respectively decreased by 69.61%, 46.00%, and 46.20%. In the end, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/periostin was suggested to mediate PDGF-induced cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production in lupus nephritis.