Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

@article{Page2011PhosphodiesteraseII,
  title={Phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.},
  author={Clive P Page and Domenico Spina},
  journal={Handbook of experimental pharmacology},
  year={2011},
  volume={204},
  pages={391-414}
}
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) belongs to a family of enzymes which catalyzes the breakdown of 3, 5'-adenosine cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and is ubiquitously expressed in inflammatory cells. There is little evidence that inflammatory diseases are caused by increased expression of this isoenzyme, although human inflammatory cell activity can be suppressed by selective PDE4 inhibitors. Consequently, there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a… CONTINUE READING

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Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
IntestinesIs primary anatomic site of diseaseInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
IntestinesIs associated anatomic site ofInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
NauseaNo subtypeVomiting
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
NauseaNo subtypeVomiting
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
VomitingNo subtypeNausea
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
VomitingNo subtypeNausea
Recent clinical trials with roflumilast in COPD have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4 and recently roflumilast has been approved for marketing in Europe and the USA , although side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances , particularly nausea and emesis as well as headache and weight loss , may limit the use of this drug class , at least when administered by the oral route .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
Consequently , there is intense interest in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors for the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases , including asthma , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) , inflammatory bowel disease , and psoriasis .
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