Phosphodiesterase inhibition decreases nuclear factor-kappaB activation and shifts the cytokine response toward anti-inflammatory activity in acute endotoxemia.

BACKGROUND In sepsis, activation of inflammatory cells and excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines leads to tissue injury, multiple organ failure, and death. We postulated that attenuation but not complete abrogation of hyperinflammation is of clinical benefit in sepsis. Because pentoxifylline (PTX) is known to decrease tumor necrosis factor (TNF… (More)