Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is essential for all living organisms. Bound to organic molecules, Pi fulfills structural, metabolic, and signaling tasks. Therefore, cell growth and maintenance depends on efficient transport of Pi across cellular membranes into the intracellular space. Uptake of Pi requires energy because the substrate is transported against its electrochemical gradient. Till recently, 2 major families of physiologically relevant Pi-specific transporters have been identified: the solute carrier families Slc34 and Slc20. Interestingly, phylogenetic links can be detected between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters in both families. Because less complex model organisms are often instrumental in establishing paradigms for protein function in human beings, a brief assessment of Slc34 and Slc20 phylogeny is of interest.