Phosphate limitation to control biofouling.

  title={Phosphate limitation to control biofouling.},
  author={Johannes S. Vrouwenvelder and Florian Beyer and Khalid Dahmani and Nazmul Hasan and Gilbert Galjaard and Joop C. Kruithof and Mark C M van Loosdrecht},
  journal={Water research},
  volume={44 11},
Phosphate limitation as a method to control biofouling of spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied at a full-scale installation fed with extensively pretreated water. The RO installation is characterized by (i) a low feed channel pressure drop increase and (ii) low biomass concentrations in membrane elements at the installation feed side. This installation contrasted sharply with installations fed with less extensively pretreated feed water (and therefore higher phosphate… CONTINUE READING