Phosphate Groups of Lipid A Are Essential for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence and Affect Innate and Adaptive Immunity

@article{Kong2012PhosphateGO,
  title={Phosphate Groups of Lipid A Are Essential for Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence and Affect Innate and Adaptive Immunity},
  author={Qingke Kong and David A Six and Qing Liu and Lillian Gu and Shifeng Wang and Praveen Alamuri and Christian R. H. Raetz and Roy Curtiss},
  journal={Infection and Immunity},
  year={2012},
  volume={80},
  pages={3215 - 3224}
}
ABSTRACT Lipid A is a key component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and stimulates proinflammatory responses via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD2-CD14 pathway. Its endotoxic activity depends on the number and length of acyl chains and its phosphorylation state. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, removal of the secondary laurate or myristate chain in lipid A results in bacterial attenuation and growth defects in vitro. However, the roles of the two lipid A phosphate… 
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