Eight cases of phlegmonous enterocolitis which involved the small intestine exclusively in 5 patients, colon exclusively in 2, and both small intestine and colon in one are reported. Seven of the cases were studied at autopsy. The intestinal lesion was clearly the cause of death in 3 patients and was probably a secondary finding in 4 others. In one case, the cecum was involved and this segment was surgically resected. Five of the patients gave a history of alcoholism. The livers of the 7 patients studied at autopsy were all abnormal; cirrhosis was present in 4, severe fatty metamorphosis in 2, and moderate fatty metamorphosis in 1. The clinical, morphological, and bacteriological aspects of phlegmonous gastritis and phlegmonous enterocolitis are similar, and these two conditions are thought to represent the same infectious disease involving different levels of the gastrointestinal tract. In most patients the factor(s) predisposing to infection of the gastric and intestinal wall are unknown. In some patients mucosal injury of varied type and septicemia appear to have been the forerunners of the phlegmonous lesion. The possible relationships of ischemic bowel injury, alcoholis, and liver disease to phlegmonous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed.