Phi is not beta, and why Wertheimer’s discovery launched the Gestalt revolution

@article{Steinman2000PhiIN,
  title={Phi is not beta, and why Wertheimer’s discovery launched the Gestalt revolution},
  author={Robert M. Steinman and Zygmunt Pizlo and Filip Pizlo},
  journal={Vision Research},
  year={2000},
  volume={40},
  pages={2257-2264}
}
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), the founder of the Gestalt School of Psychology, published a monograph on the perception of apparent motion in 1912, which initiated a new direction for a great deal of subsequent perceptual theory and research. Wertheimer's research was inspired by a serendipitous observation of a pure apparent movement, which he called the phi-phenomenon to distinguish it from optimal apparent movement (beta), which resembles real movement. Wertheimer called his novel observation… Expand
A century of Gestalt psychology in visual perception: I. Perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization.
TLDR
An integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border ownership, and figure-ground perception is concluded by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether the authors can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. Expand
Deciding what to see: The role of intention and attention in the perception of apparent motion
TLDR
The experiments reveal a high susceptibility of ambiguous apparent motion to attentional modulation and discusses how feature- and space-based attention mechanisms might contribute to those effects. Expand
Two psychologies of perception and the prospect of their synthesis
Two traditions have had a great impact on the theoretical and experimental research of perception. One tradition is statistical, stretching from Fechner's enunciation of psychophysics in 1860 to theExpand
Consciousness and apparent motion: Paradox resolved
A perceptual phenomenon called apparent motion has been described as a paradox that challenges the notions of causality and temporal order. While the illusion has generated a passionate and oftenExpand
Motion perception as inconsistent
This paper offers an inconsistent model of motion perception. It was prompted by work on inconsistent motion due to Hegel and, following him, Priest. But the paper skirts Hegel's full scale idealism,Expand
The perception of object versus objectless motion
TLDR
The classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. Expand
From Michotte Until Today: Why the Dichotomous Classification of Modal and Amodal Completions Is Inadequate
TLDR
It is argued that the dichotomous distinction between modal and amodal completions is problematic in phenomenological, empirical, logical, and theoretical terms and proposed alternative criteria allowing for a more differentiated classification scheme for completion phenomena. Expand
Apparent phi-motion in sequences of Eisenstein's October
Dynamic visual media are today an integral part of our everyday lives (Beller, 2006; Charney & Schwartz, 1995; Doane, 2002; Pomerance, 2006). Film is based on the presentation of still images in aExpand
Developing a system of screen-less animation for experiments in perception of movement
TLDR
The team sought to develop a replicable technique that included embodied, multi-sensory perception but eliminated the screen, by taking time-based techniques from animation and converting them to the spatial; grouping static objects according to Gestalt principles, to create sequential visual cues that, when lit with projected light, demand selective attention. Expand
Classification of apparent motion percepts based on temporal factors.
TLDR
This work investigated how the transitions between the different percepts depend on temporal variables over a large range of interstimulus intervals and stimulus onset asynchronies, and presented a hierarchical classification scheme describing the critical temporal conditions for alternative percepts. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 45 REFERENCES
Motion Perception: A Modern View of Wertheimer's 1912 Monograph
TLDR
Topics discussed include Wertheimer's experimental tests of explanations for apparentmotion; his work with motion phenomena that lie between succession and optimum motion; his studies of the influence of attention on motion; explorations of various forms of hysteresis and motion transparency; and Wertheimers work with a motion-blind patient. Expand
Stroboscopic Movement Based on Perceptual Intelligence
TLDR
In several experiments it is demonstrated that, when an object alternately covers and uncovers two dots, movement is not perceived, supporting the theory that perception results from a process analogous to intelligent problem solving. Expand
Essay review-gestalt psychology in German culture, 1890-1967: Holism and the Quest for objectivity
List of illustrations Preface Introduction Part I. The Social and Intellectual Settings: 1. The academic environment and the establishment of experimental psychology 2. Carl Stumpf and the trainingExpand
Phenomenal simutaneity and the perceptual moment hypothesis.
  • D. Allport
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • British journal of psychology
  • 1968
TLDR
This paper examines two models of perceptual sampling which purport to account for phenomenal simultaneity and rejects Stroud's (1955) theory that the sensory input is quantized into successive, discrete summation periods or ‘moments' (the Discrete Moment Hypothesis). Expand
Perceptions as hypotheses.
  • R. Gregory
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1980
TLDR
Experimental results are presented, aimed at distinguishing between and disconvering what happens when there is mismatch with the neural signal channel, and when neural signals are processed inappropriately for the current situation. Expand
Cortical dynamics of form and motion integration: Persistence, apparent motion, and illusory contours
TLDR
A neural model of form-motion interactions is developed to explain and simulate parametric properties of psychophysical motion data and to make predictions about how the parallel cortical processing streams V1-->MT and V1 -->V2-->MT control form- motion interactions. Expand
A New Bistable Motion Illusion Based upon ‘Kinetic Optical Occlusion’
TLDR
In a series of experiments it was found that the transition IBI for the original display did not depend upon whether the observer was tracking the sequence of events or fixating a stationary point in the display, and depended on whether the display was focused or optically blurred. Expand
Analysis of visual behavior
"Analysis of Visual Behavior" encompasses both theoretical and experimental research. It deals with the visual mechanisms of diverse vertebrate species from salamanders and toads to primates andExpand
Motion: the long and short of it.
TLDR
It is claimed that the differences between short-range and long-range motion phenomena are a direct consequence of the stimuli used in the two paradigms and are not evidence for the existence of two qualitatively different motion processes. Expand
Motion selectivity in macaque visual cortex. III. Psychophysics and physiology of apparent motion.
TLDR
It would appear that neurons in either V1 or MT could mediate the perceptual effect at low speeds, whereas MT is a stronger candidate for this role at high speeds. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...