Phenylethanol enhancement of preservatives used in ophthalmic preparations

  title={Phenylethanol enhancement of preservatives used in ophthalmic preparations},
  author={R. Michael E. Richards and R. J. Mcbride},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology},
The growth rates of P. aeruginosa in subinhibitory concentrations of antibacterial preservatives alone and in combination with phenylethanol were determined by an extinction method. Phenylethanol enhances the effect of benzalkonium chloride on growing cultures of P. aeruginosa and the results have been confirmed by viable counts. A similar effect is shown by phenylethanol in combination with chlorbutol, chlorhexidine diacetate, chlorocresol, merthiolate, methyl and propyl hydroxybenzoate… Expand
15 Citations
Inactivation of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by antibacterial combinations
  • R. Richards
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • 1971
P. aeruginosa resistant to preservative concentrations of benzalkonium chloride, phenylmercuric nitrate and chlorocresol in nutrient broth was inactivated by using phenylethanol‐antibacterial combinations by showing a greater general usefulness than EDTA at the concentrations tested. Expand
The preservation of ophthalmic solutions with antibacterial combinations
Phenylethanol‐antibacterial combinations were consistently effective in killing the inoculum within 15 min except for one formulation with chlorhexidine and physostigmine salicylate and formulations with PMN for which sterilization times ranged from 30 to 90 min. Expand
Evaluation of antimicrobial interactions between chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium compounds, preservatives and excipients.
The antimicrobial interactions of 49 combinations of chlorhexidine, quaternary ammonium compounds, preservatives and excipients were evaluated by the method of Berenbaum and the checkerboard titration method and a fair correlation was shown. Expand
The biochemical basis of synergy between the antibacterial agents, chlorocresol and 2-phenylethanol
The combined antimicrobial action of chlorocresol and 2-phenylethanol has been investigated. Synergy in growth inhibition experiments was reflected by increased membrane permeability to hydrogen,Expand
Synergy in preservative combinations
The complex nature of many pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations renders the problem of their preservation an exacting challenge. Often a single antimicrobial agent (at a permissibleExpand
Antibacterial activity of phenethyl alcohol and resulting membrane alterations.
Despite the correlation between alterations in the structural integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane in Gram-negative cells and the loss of cell viability, it cannot be inferred that membrane damage is the only cause of the lethal effect. Expand
Taxonomic Significance of Phenethyl Alcohol Production by Achromobacter Isolates from Fishery Sources
The formation of phenethyl alcohol from L-phenylalanine and ethanol by achromobacter isolates of fishery origin was found to be taxonomically significant for such organisms. Phenylpyruvate, theExpand
Antimicrobial preservative use in parenteral products: past and present.
It was revealed that phenol and benzyl alcohol are the two most common antimicrobial preservatives used in peptide and protein products, while phenoxyethanol is the most frequently used preservative in vaccines. Expand
Microbiological standards for nasal solutions.
In Great Britain there are no official standards for evaluating the preservation of nasal solutions. The development of a multi-dose nasal solution containing 2% (w/v) sodium cromoglycate provided anExpand
Selective removal of sebum components from hair by surfactants
The Annual Scientific Meeting and Seminars of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists are important venues for informing the participants about the state of the art and recent technical advances in theExpand


Preservation of fluorescein solutions against contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A combination of phenylmercuric nitrate and phenylethyl alcohol was more effective in preserving fluorescein solutions against contamination with P. aeruginosa than phenylmercuric nitrate alone. P.Expand
The effect of Polysorbate (Tween) 80 on the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The reproducibility of the growth rate measurement has been established and the apparent change in the rate of growth at an early stage when determined spectrophotometrically is associated with cell clumping. Expand
Mechanism of action of phenethyl alcohol: breakdown of the cellular permeability barrier.
It is proposed that the primary effect of PEA is a limited breakdown of the cell membrane, and the inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and other cellular functions would be secondary consequences of the alteration in the membrane structure. Expand