Endothelium and Its Alterations in Cardiovascular Diseases: Life Style Intervention
Endothelial cells, which form the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, display remarkable heterogeneity in structure and function. This is the second of a 2-part review on the phenotypic heterogeneity of blood vessel endothelial cells. The first part discusses the scope, the underlying mechanisms, and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, these principles are applied to an understanding of organ-specific phenotypes in representative vascular beds including arteries and veins, heart, lung, liver, and kidney. The goal is to underscore the importance of site-specific properties of the endothelium in mediating homeostasis and focal vascular pathology, while at the same time emphasizing the value of approaching the endothelium as an integrated system.