Phenotypic Manipulation by the Cestode Parasite Schistocephalus solidus of Its Intermediate Host, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the Threespine Stickleback

  title={Phenotypic Manipulation by the Cestode Parasite Schistocephalus solidus of Its Intermediate Host, Gasterosteus aculeatus, the Threespine Stickleback},
  author={Carl Lobue and Michael A. Bell},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={725 - 735}
Holmes and Bethel (1972) pointed out that parasites alter the phenotype of their intermediate host in ways that increase its vulnerability to predation by the definitive host. The intermediate host's vulnerability may be increased by reducing its stamina, increasing its conspicuousness, or altering its behavior, especially in response to the threat of predation by the definitive host (Holmes and Bethel 1972). Numerous examples of this phenomenon have been observed (Dence 1958; Hindsbo 1972… 
Virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and reproduction in infected threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.
It is found that substantial levels of parasitic infection co-occurred with the stickleback reproductive period, and Chi-squared analyses of individual samples suggested that in May, infected females were as capable of producing clutches of eggs as uninfected females but in June, S. solidus inhibited the production of eggs.
Host mortality and variability in epizootics of Schistocephalus solidus infecting the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus
SUMMARY An analysis of the metrics of Schistocephalus solidus infection of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, in Walby Lake, Alaska, showed that an epizootic ended between 1996 and
Evolutionary significance of fecundity reduction in threespine stickleback infected by the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus.
The findings obtained for this population are consistent with the hypothesis of simple nutrient theft; however, populations of S. solidus in other regions may manipulate host energy allocation.
The infectivity, growth, and virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus
In an experiment to study the infectivity, growth and virulence of Schistocephalus solidus in their first intermediate host, copepods of the species Macrocyclops albidus were kept singly and exposed to up to 9 coracidia, indicating that the parasites profit from a dilution effect of the host's defence.
The Effect of Schistocephalus Solidus (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) On the Foraging and Shoaling Behaviour of Three-Spined Sticklebacks, Gasterosteus Aculeatus
Experimental work on the shoaling decisions of S. solidus-infected sticklebacks supports the manipulation hypothesis of parasite transmission, and behavioural modification is discussed in the context of this hypothesis.
The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reductions in mean female egg mass represent side effects of parasitism involving nutrient theft and suggest that unknown ecological and evolutionary factors influence the degree of reduction in mean ovum mass in a population-specific manner.
Distinct Lineages of Schistocephalus Parasites in Threespine and Ninespine Stickleback Hosts Revealed by DNA Sequence Analysis
The findings emphasize that biological communities may be even more complex than they first appear, and beg the question of what are the ecological, physiological, and genetic factors that maintain the specificity of the Schistocephalus parasites and their stickleback hosts.
The stickleback–Schistocephalus host–parasite system as a model for understanding the effect of a macroparasite on host reproduction
Using the trophic transmitted Schistocephalus as a model, the suite of traits expressed in hosts of trophically transmitted parasites should be systematically investigated to develop a complete understanding of the system.
Parasite-associated phenotype modifications in threespine stickleback
It is demonstrated that stickleback harboring a worm large enough to be infective to a definitive host exhibit behavioral shifts likely to enhance transmission, but that these changes are substantially magnified in demelanized individuals, all of which were infected by large tapeworms.


Some effects of the cestode (Schistocephalus solidus) on reproduction in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): Evolutionary aspects of a host-parasite interaction
The effects of Schistocephalus on reproduction in Gasterosteus reached a peak in June and declined sharply through July and August, whereas over 40% of the sexually mature but nongravid females were infected over the entire breeding season.
Infections of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., with the plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776), with special reference to pathological effects.
Infections are described of Gasterosteus aculeatus in a pond at Leeds with the plerocercoid larvae of Schistocephalus solidus with some effects of parasitization on the host include gross distension of the body, reduction of liver weight, reduction in packed cell volume of erythrocytes and delay in oocyte maturation.
Predation, natural selection and adaptation in an unusual threespine stickleback
The following is a study of selection operating in the form of predation on the unusual characteristics of the Black stickleback.
Breeding ecology and evidence of reproductive isolation of a widespread stickleback fish (Gasterosteidae) in Nova Scotia, Canada
The white stickleback occurs only in environments where there are filamentous algae (which appears to be an obligatory nesting substrate) and where the water is clear, saline and relatively still.
Infectivity of plerocercoids of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Ligulidae) and fecundity of the adults in an experimental definitive host, Gallus gallus.
The average egg output was predicted by the final adult dry weight and to a lesser extent by the proportion of weight lost in the transition from plerocercoid to adult, but not by the absolute weight loss.
Risk of Predation of Parasitized Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus Aculeatus L.) Under Competition for Food
Three-spined sticklebacks which were either unparasitized, heavily infested by plerocercoids of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus, or parasitized by the sporozoan Glugea anomala were singly offered
Effects of Predation Risk and Parasitism on the Feeding Ecology, Habitat Use, and Abondance of Lacustrine Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
From 1980 to 1985, a lacustrine population of threespine stickleback was investigated with respect to densities, individual length, distribution, diet, frequency of parasitism by Schistocepbalus solidus, and selective predation by Atlantic salmon.
The effects of parasitism by the plerocercoid of Schistocephalus solidus Muller 1776 (Pseudophyllidea) on the respiration of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L.
Difficulties of determining specific respiration rates for parasitized organisms are discussed and attempts are made to assess the physiological basis of the respiratory and behavioural characteristics of infected fish.
A comparison of the behavioural responses of parasitized and non‐parasitized three‐spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., to progressive hypoxia
It is suggested that the metabolic respiratory demand of the parasitic tapeworm larvae causes the stickleback to modify its behaviour at lowered DO, which causes the fish to surface, where they are likely to be at risk from predatory birds.
A quantitative approach to the effects of the plerocercoid of Schistocephalus solidus müller 1776 on the ovarian maturation of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L.
  • R. Meakins
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde
  • 2004
An attempt has been made to quantify the relationship between the delay in oogenesis and the energy requirements of the parasite Schistocephalus solidus, which delayed ovarian maturation of Gasterosteus and altered the latter's courtship behaviour making spawning improbable.