Ti-30Nb-xZr and Ti-30Ta-xNb alloys have been investigated using various methods of surface nanotube formation. Ternary Ti-30Nb-xZr (x = 3 and 15 wt%) and Ti-30Ta-xNb (x = 3 and 15 wt%) alloys were prepared by using high-purity sponge Ti (Grade 4, G&S Titanium, USA), Ta, Zr and Nb spheres. The two groups of ternary Ti alloys were prepared using a vacuum arc melting furnace. Nanotube formation was carried out with a conventional three-electrode configuration with the Ti alloy specimen, a platinum counterelectrode, and a saturated calomel (SCE) reference electrode. Experiments were performed in 1 M H3PO4 with small additions of NaF (0.1-0.8 wt%), using a potentiostat. Nanotubes formed on the surfaces of the two ternary Ti alloys were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, EDS and XRD. The Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys had microstructure with entirely needle-like constituents; the thickness of the needle-like alpha-phase increased as the Zr content increased. The Ti-30Nb-xZr alloys had equiaxed microstructures of the beta-phase, and increasing amounts of the needle-like alpha phase appeared at the grain boundaries of the beta-phase as the Zr content increased. The nanotubes were nucleated and grew mainly on the beta phase for the Ti-30Ta-3Zr and Ti-30Nb-3Zr alloys, which had nanotubes with uniform shape, but the nanotubes were nucleated at the alpha phase for the Ti-30Ta-15Zr and Ti-30Nb-15Zr alloys, which had nanotubes with irregular shape and diameters of two sizes. The diameter and depth of the nanotubes could be controlled, depending upon the alloy composition and composition of the surface oxide films (TiO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5, and ZrO2). It is concluded that this research that selection of the appropriate alloying element can allow significant control of the nanotopography of these Ti alloy surfaces and that it is possible to control the surface nanotube size to promote long-term osseointegration for clinical dental or orthopedic use.