Phenological Variation in Chemical Defense of the Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor

  title={Phenological Variation in Chemical Defense of the Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus philenor},
  author={James A. Fordyce and Zachary H Marion and Arthur M. Shapiro},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
Larvae of the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor, feed on plants in the genus Aristolochia, which contains aristolochic acids, toxic alkaloids unique to the Aristolochiaceae. Pipevine swallowtails sequester these compounds and, as a consequence, are chemically defended against many natural enemies. In California, the primary aristolochic acid present in the butterfly is aristolochic acid I. Newly eclosed adult females possess greater amounts of these sequestered toxins compared to males… CONTINUE READING


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