Perivascular Expression and Potent Vasoconstrictor Effect of Dynorphin A in Cerebral Arteries
Several psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP) analogs--N-ethyl-l-phenylcyclohexylamine (PCE), N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (TCP), N-[1-(thienyl)cyclohexyl ))pyrrolidine (THP), ketamine, and N,N-dimethyl-l-phenyl-cyclohexylamine (PCDEA)--were tested on basilar and middle cerebral arteries of the dog in vitro and found to induce contraction in these blood vessels with a maximal contractile activity (i.e., intrinsic activity) similar to that of PCP. The concentration-effect curves of these compounds were found to be parallel to the curve of PCP (P less than 0.01). The relative potency was PCE greater than TCP greater than PCP greater than THP greater than PCDEA greater than ketamine. A PCP analog with no psychotomimetic activity, 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC), did not induce the blood vessels to contract, nor did the opiate morphine. Three psychotomimetic benzomorphans--pentazocine, cyclazocine, and N-allylnorcyclazocine--were found to: (i) also produce contraction; and (ii) have concentration--effect curves parallel to the curve of PCP, but with reduced intrinsic activities (i.e., maximal tensions were lowered) compared to PCP. A kappa opiate, ethylketocyclazocine, relaxed the blood vessels in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides direct evidence for a distinct PCP receptor on cerebral blood vessels and suggests that certain benzomorphans may produce cerebral vasospasm via PCP-receptor interactions.