Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: a hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia.

@article{Grace1991PhasicVT,
  title={Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: a hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia.},
  author={Anthony A. Grace},
  journal={Neuroscience},
  year={1991},
  volume={41 1},
  pages={1-24}
}
A novel mechanism for regulating dopamine activity in subcortical sites and its possible relevance to schizophrenia is proposed. This hypothesis is based on the regulation of dopamine release into subcortical regions occurring via two independent mechanisms: (1) transient or phasic dopamine release caused by dopamine neuron firing, and (2) sustained, "background" tonic dopamine release regulated by prefrontal cortical afferents. Behaviorally relevant stimuli are proposed to cause short-term… CONTINUE READING
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