Phase velocity and particle injection in a self-modulated proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  title={Phase velocity and particle injection in a self-modulated proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.},
  author={A. Pukhov and N. Kumar and T. T{\"u}ckmantel and A. Upadhyay and Konstantin V Lotov and Patric Muggli and Vladimir N. Khudik and Carl Siemon and Gennady Shvets},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={107 14},
It is demonstrated that the performance of the self-modulated proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator is strongly affected by the reduced phase velocity of the plasma wave. Using analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the reduction is largest during the linear stage of self-modulation. As the instability nonlinearly saturates, the phase velocity approaches that of the driver. The deleterious effects of the wake's dynamics on the maximum energy gain of accelerated… 

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