The possible evidence for association comprises three types of information: differences between cases and controls in allele frequencies, in parameters for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD), and in parameters for linkage disequilibrium (LD). LD between marker and disease alleles results in a difference in at least one of the three types of parameters [Won… (More)
Fig. 7. Correlations: pA1 and pB1 are 0.2; D 0, Lewontin’s D05; (a) and (b) are analytical correlations of p _ A1 and dA with D̂ m A1B1 , D̂wA1B1 , and D̂ C A1B1 when the haplotype frequencies are known; (c) and (d) are empirical correlations of Sa and SHWD with S m LD, S w LD and S c LD from 20,000 replicates of 10,000 cases and 10,000 controls under LE between marker and disease alleles; pD1 ¼ 0:15, f ¼ 0:1, k15 1.2, and k25 1.4; SmLD and SwLD are calculated under the assumption that the haplotype frequencies in cases and controls are the same: (a) correlations with p̂A1 , (b) correlations with d̂A, (c) empirical correlations with Sa, and (d) empirical correlations with SHWD. LE, linkage equilibrium.