Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter

@article{Loisel1998PhaseTA,
  title={Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter},
  author={C. Loisel and G{\'e}rard Keller and G. Lecq and Claudie Bourgaux and Michel Ollivon},
  journal={Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society},
  year={1998},
  volume={75},
  pages={425-439}
}
The polymorphism and phase transitions of cocoa butter (CB) have been reexamined separately by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT) at scanning rates between 0.1 to 5°C/min and 0.1 to 2°C/min, respectively. A new instrument, which allowed simultaneous DSC and XRDT recordings from the same sample by taking advantage of the high-energy flux of a synchrotron, was employed for characterization of the intermediate phase transitions. These… 
Relationship between Crystallization Behavior and Structure in Cocoa Butter
Cocoa butter was crystallized statically from the melt to various temperatures in the range of −20 to 26 °C and annealed for up to 45 days. During this period, the polymorphism of the solid state was
Thermal and structural behavior of milk fat. 1. Unstable species of anhydrous milk fat.
The thermal and structural behavior of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was studied by a technique that allowed simultaneous time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature (XRDT)
Phase Behavior of Cocoa Butter in a Two-Step Isothermal Crystallization
Different analytical techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation) were used to study the isothermal
Thermal and Structural Behavior of Milk Fat.
The thermal and structural properties of unstable varieties of triacylglycerols (TGs) crystallizing in milk fat globules of cream are examined in the range -8- +50 degrees C using a new instrument
Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.
Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and
Crystallization and polymorphic behavior of enzymatically produced sunflower oil based cocoa butter equivalents
A multi-methodological approach was used to study the isothermal crystallization of cocoa butter (CB) in the presence of sunflower oil based cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs). pNMR, DSC, oscillatory
Thermal and Structural Behavior of Milk Fat.
TLDR
XRDT measurements show the progressive transformations of the crystalline varieties correlated with endotherms and exotherms recorded by DSC, showing that crystallization is different in emulsion and in bulk.
Crystallisation of triacylglycerols in nanoparticles
The crystallisation properties of a mixture of triacylglycerols (TG), cocoa butter (CB) 75%/miglyol 25%, were investigated on cooling at 0.5 °C/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and
A Method to Qualify and Quantify the Crystalline State of Cocoa Butter in Industrial Chocolate
A range of methods, mainly X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), have been used to characterise the polymorphism of fats in food products. As sugars present in
A Method to Qualify and Quantify the Crystalline State of Cocoa Butter in Industrial Chocolate
  • B. Le
  • Materials Science
  • 2010
A range of methods, mainly X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), have been used to characterise the polymorphism of fats in food products. As sugars present in
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References

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The thermal behavior of three ural fats (displaying very different composition), cocoa butter (CB)2, lard, and a stearin obtained from anhydrous milk-fat (AMF) fractionation, were studied by both DSC
Thermal and compositional properties of cocoa butter during static crystallization
Studies were conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the thermal properties and glyceride composition of cocoa butter
Reconsideration of polymorphic transformations in cocoa butter using the DSC
Cocoa butter was crystallized in the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in the presence and the absence of sorbitan monostearate at different cooling rates. The solidification and fusion curves
Polymorphism of cocoa butter
TLDR
Largely by x-ray diffraction six crystalline states, I–VI, in order of increasing melting point, have been identified for cocoa butter, and it is premature to say that VI is specifically the phase of chocolate “bloom”.
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Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. II. Morphological, thermal, and chemical characteristics during crystal growth
After an induction period, crystallization of cocoa butter under dynamic conditions at 26.5°C occurs in two stages, primary and secondary. The primary stage involves nucleation, crystal growth,
Dynamic Crystallization of Dark Chocolate as Affected by Temperature and Lipid Additives
The dynamic crystallization was studied in a lab-scale Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger by following variations with time of torque applied during different isotherms between 24.9°C and 31.0°C.
Dynamic crystallization of cocoa butter. I. characterization of simple lipids in rapid- and slow-nucleating cocoa butters and their seed crystals
Six cocoa butters with different crystallization induction times and their seed crystals were analyzed for simple lipid composition. The rapid-nucleating cocoa butter samples had higher
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