S-1 plus leucovorin versus S-1 plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin versus S-1 plus cisplatin in patients with advanced gastric cancer: a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial.
The first one-arm phase II trial aimed to evaluate and predict efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oral leucovorin (S-1/LV) as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), using S-1 pharmacogenetic pathway approach. A total of 39 patients orally took S-1 at conventional dose and LV simultaneously at a dose of 25 mg twice daily for a week, within a 2-week cycle. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs). Peripheral blood was sampled prospectively for baseline expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and thymidylate synthase (TS), CYP2A6 gene polymorphisms, and 5-FU pharmacokinetics. The ORR and DCR were 41.0 and 76.9%. The median PFS, TTF, and OS were 4.13, 3.70, and 11.40 months. Grade 3–4 AEs occurred in only 13 patients, and grade 4 AEs occurred in only 1 of them. High OPRT/TS and peritoneal metastasis (vs. liver metastasis) independently predicted responding. High OPRT/DPD independently predicted grade 3–4 AEs. High AUC0–24h of 5-FU and metastatic/recurrent sites ≤2 (vs. >3) independently predicted prolonged PFS. Low baseline plasmic DPD independently predicted prolonged OS. Two-week, oral S-1/LV regimen demonstrated promising efficacy and safety as first-line chemotherapy for AGC. NCT02090153