Phase II study of flutamide in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study

  title={Phase II study of flutamide in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study},
  author={Daniele J. Perrault and Diane M. Logan and David J. Stewart and Vivien H. C. Bramwell and Alexander H. G. Paterson and Elizabeth A. Eisenhauer},
  journal={Investigational New Drugs},
SummaryThe National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group conducted a phase II study of the oral antiandrogen flutamide in 33 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Eight patients had received no prior systemic therapy for their metastatic disease and 13 had only one site of metastasis. Toxicity occurred in 18 of the 33 patients and was primarily gastrointestinal. It ranged in severity from mild to severe with 4 patients discontinuing treatment early because of nausea… 
Phase II Trial of Bicalutamide in Patients with Androgen Receptor–Positive, Estrogen Receptor–Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer
The CBR of 19% observed with bicalutamide shows proof of principle for the efficacy of minimally toxic androgen blockade in a select group of patients with ER/PgR-negative, AR-positive breast cancer.
Endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer: A review
  • H. Muss
  • Medicine, Biology
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
  • 2005
There is no convincing evidence that either combinations of endocrine therapies or endocrine therapy combined with chemotherapy are associated with an improvement in survival for patients with metastatic disease.
New Entrants into Clinical Trials for Targeted Therapy of Breast Cancer: An Insight.
This review highlights the recently studied target molecules that have received indications in breast carcinoma, both in the localized and in advanced state and about their inhibitors which are in clinical development which can give immense potential to clinical care in the near future.
Endocrine agents in the treatmentof advanced breast cancer
SummaryThere are plenty of endocrine agents available for patients with advanced breast cancer. They have good therapeutic evidence and show fewer side effects in women with hormone-receptor-positive
Androgen Receptor as a Potential Target for Treatment of Breast Cancer
  • Y. WuJ. Vadgama
  • Biology, Medicine
    International journal of cancer research and molecular mechanisms
  • 2017
The role of AR in different subtypes of breast cancers is reviewed and its mechanisms are elucidated to better understand its mechanisms.
Efficacy and Safety of Targeting Androgen Receptor in Advanced Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review
Androgen receptor pathway targeting in advanced breast cancer remains a valid option with reasonable clinical benefit in non-selected patients and future studies are needed to define an AR addicted cohort with better responses and outcome.
Consideration of breast cancer subtype in targeting the androgen receptor.
Evaluation of the prognostic significance of androgen receptor expression in metastatic breast cancer
It is concluded that SAR is significantly longer in patients with AR-expressing breast carcinoma, however, AR expression is not an independent prognostic factor for SAR in metastatic breast cancer.
Growth inhibition of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinomas by the antiandrogen flutamide
It is demonstrated that the antiandrogen FLU and the full androgen DHT exert similar inhibitory effects on the growth of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumors, and data show that plasma steroids levels are unaffected by FLU treatment.
The Role of the Androgen Receptor in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
This review provides an update on the advances made in the last several years regarding the role of AR as a prognostic/predictive biomarker in breast cancer, the underlying biology of AR signaling in Breast cancer development and the available clinical data for the use of androgen inhibition in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer.


The value of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the treatment of breast cancer
Preliminary analysis suggests that the presence of PgR may be a better marker of tumor hormone dependence than quantitative ER, which is an important independent prognostic indicator of higher rate of recurrence and shorter survival.
Steroid receptors in breast cancer.
A consensus-development meeting on "Steroid Receptors in Breast Cancer" was held at the National Institutes of Health on June 27–29 and concluded with a round-table discussion on the impact of receptor assays on the management of the patient with breast cancer.
Current concepts in cancer. Receptors in breast cancer.
Estrogen Receptor and Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer SINCE the pioneering work of George Beatson,1 who induced tumor regressions in patients with advanced breast cancer by oophorectomy, it has been argued thatrogen receptor and endocrine therapy of breast cancer should be combined.
Steroid hormones and human breast cancer. An hypothesis
It is proposed that dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), secreted by the adrenal, may be implicated in the development of the “Western‐environmental’ or “adrenal” type of human breast cancer and furthermore that a specific control of DHEAS secretion in the Adrenal may exist at the level of the sulphurylation step.
Interaction of Δ5-Androstene-3β,17β-diol with Estradiol and Dihydrotestosterone Receptors in Human Myometrial and Mammary Cancer Tissue1
Specific receptor binding of estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was studied in human myometrial tissue and in human mammary cancer tissue to find receptors were found for both E2 and DHT.
Interaction of delta-5-androstene-3beta, 17beta-diol with estradiol and dihydrotestosterone receptors in human myometrial and mammary cancer tissue.
Of the substances tested Adiol is the only one which exerts a significant inhibiting influence at a molar ratio not far beyond the physiological range, which signifies that Adiol might interfere at the receptor level in the estrogenic stimulation of mammary cancer cells.
The hypothesis
. In mathematics, the Riemann Hypothesis is a con-jecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real part 12 . In 2002, Lagarias
Estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors in progestin-induced regression of human breast cancer.
It is demonstrated that the progestins megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate are strong competitors for steroids which bind specifically to androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors, indicating that the PROGestins are able to bind to these receptors with high affinity.
Steroid receptors in breast
  • cancer
  • 1980