Pharyngeal structure and function

@article{Kahrilas1993PharyngealSA,
  title={Pharyngeal structure and function},
  author={Peter J. Kahrilas},
  journal={Dysphagia},
  year={1993},
  volume={8},
  pages={303-307}
}
The walls of the oropharynx are composed of the superior, middle, and inferior pharyngeal constrictors posteriorly and the base of the tongue opposing these constrictors anteriorly. The superior pharyngeal constrictor arises from the pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, mandible, and tongue, passes posteromedially, and inserts to the posterior raphe. The middle constrictor arises from the hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament, passes posteromedially, and inserts in the posterior median… CONTINUE READING

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Anatomical Significance of the Spatial Distribution of the Palatopharyngeus With Regard to Velopharyngeal Closure

  • The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
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