OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the videofluoroscopic (VFS) signs of impaired efficacy (pharyngeal residue) and safety (aspiration) swallowing and the clinical/nutritional status of patients with suspect of dysphagia. DESIGN A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients submitted to videofluoroscopy. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Data of 76 patients were analyzed between March 2011 and December 2014. MEASUREMENTS The clinical history and VFS exams of patients ≥ 38 years were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS 88% patients presented Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (OD), 44.7% presented laryngeal penetration and 32% presented aspiration. 78% patients presented pharyngeal residue. Aspiration was associated with Head Neck Cancer (HNC) [Prevalence Ratio (PR): 2.27, p = 0.028] and cardiovascular disease (PR 1.96, p = 0.027). Underweight [Body Mass Index < 18.5 kg/m2] was not associated with the presence of aspiration. Underweight patients with OD had a higher prevalence rate of pharyngeal residue than those normally nourished (100% vs. 78%) (PR 1.34, p = 0.011). Pharyngeal residue was associated with male sex (PR 1.32, p = 0.040), neurodegenerative disease (PR 1.57, p = 0.021), stroke (PR 1.62, p = 0.009), cerebral palsy (PR 1.76, p = 0.006) and HNC (PR 1.73, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION In the present study, neurologic diseases, HNC, male sex and underweight were associated to impaired swallowing efficacy. Underweight, independently of the other variables, was not associated with impaired swallowing safety.