Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews.

@article{Kroenke2009PharmacotherapyOC,
  title={Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews.},
  author={Kurt Kroenke and Erin E Krebs and Matthew J. Bair},
  journal={General hospital psychiatry},
  year={2009},
  volume={31 3},
  pages={
          206-19
        }
}

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References

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EFNS guidelines on pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain

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Evaluated trials provide level A evidence for the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin and opioids, with a large number of class I trials, followed by topical lidocaine and the newer antidepressants venlafaxine and duloxetine.

Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: a meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects

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Weak and strong opioids outperformed placebo for pain and function in all types of CNCP and were significantly superior to naproxen and nortriptyline, and only for pain relief.

Treatment of Pain Syndromes with Venlafaxine

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Venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has been safe and effective in animal models, healthy human volunteers, and patients for treatment of various pain syndromes and additional randomized, controlled trials are necessary to fully elucidate the role of venlafAXine in the treatment of chronic pain.

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Antidepressants can be effective for various physical symptoms and symptom syndromes and onbivariate tally tricyclic studies were associated with a greater likelihood of efficacy than SSRI studies.

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A structured goal-directed approach to chronic opioid treatment is suggested; this aims to select and monitor patients carefully, and wean therapy if treatment goals are not reached.

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Oral methadone is used for various noncancer pain syndromes, at different settings and with no prescription pattern that could be identifiable, and starting, maintenance, and maximum doses showed great variability.
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