Pharmacology of flumazenil

@article{Whitwam1995PharmacologyOF,
  title={Pharmacology of flumazenil},
  author={James G. Whitwam and R. Amrein},
  journal={Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica},
  year={1995},
  volume={39}
}
Flumazenil, an imidazobenzodiazpine, is the first benzodiazepine antagonist available for clinical use. It is a specific competitive antagonist at benzodiazepine receptors, which are associated with receptors for gammaaminobutyric acid, the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Administered orally, it has a low bioavailability and the preferred route is intravenous. Its usual clinical role is to reverse the effects of benzodiazepine sedation; however… Expand
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TLDR
Caution should be exercised when using this agent in patients who have co-ingested chloral hydrate or carbamazepine or whose ECG shows abnormalities typical of those seen after overdose with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs); the use of flumazenil in the presence of these drugs can sometimes induce treatable cardiac dysrrhythmia. Expand
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TLDR
The applied LC-MS method for the determination of flumazenil in serum samples of patients with acute diazepam poisoning is rapid, sensitive, precise and specific. Expand
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Elastomeric FLU infusion for BzD detoxification is a feasible administration device to maintain adequate, constant, and tolerated FLU concentrations for reducing BZD withdrawal symptoms. Expand
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TLDR
It is conceivable that flumazenil may antagonize the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and induce dopamine hypersensitivity, thus induce dyskinesic symptoms, and be used to reverse the adverse pharmacological effects of benzodiazepines. Expand
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The novel GABAA receptor ligand L838,417 was anxiolytic in this mouse model, and unlike the non-selective compounds, had no effect on unpunished drinking. Expand
Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of flumazenil for routine outpatient EGD.
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Stressful reactions and panic attacks induced by flumazenil in chronic benzodiazepine users
TLDR
Caution should be exercised when giving flumazenil to panic patients who are taking BZDs as maintenance treatment, as it triggered a qualitatively different reaction amounting to a panic attack during infusion in nine out of 15 patients. Expand
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TLDR
Flumazenil is a very promising, effective, short acting benzodiazepine antagonist which is well tolerated by most patients, and since it reliably attenuates or reverses the central effects of Benzodiazepines and is specific for these drugs, it facilitates diagnosis by eliminating benzodiazine intoxication in patients in whom the cause of unconsciousness is unknown. Expand
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TLDR
Electroencephalographic studies in 6 patients with partial and 6 with generalised seizures showed that flumazenil had a short (20 min) non-dose-dependent suppressant effect on epileptic discharges in those with partial seizures. Expand
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TLDR
In several clinical studies intravenous doses down to 0.2mg of flumazenil initiated a rapid and reliable reversal of benzodiazepine-induced sedation, hypnosis or coma, which might be explained by a modulation of GABA-ergic activity. Expand
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TLDR
In patients treated chronically for periods of up to 42 months with flumazenil as monotherapy or as addition to basic therapy, the anti-convulsant effect was good or very good in 70% of the previously untreated (naive) patients and in about half of the patients who had epilepsy of long duration and had been treated already with standard anti- Convulsants. Expand
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TLDR
The onset of effect immediately follows the diffusion of the substances into the CNS and can be observed within the first minutes following flumazenil or midazolam administration, which allows both drugs to be administered in repeated small bolus doses under close observation of the patient's reaction. Expand
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TLDR
Flumazenil has slight partial agonistic properties that can be seen as a built-in safety mechanism when used in reversing agonist effects and that may be of use in the treatment of epilepsies. Expand
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TLDR
The risk in man given therapeutic doses or even intentional or accidental overdoses of flumazenil is extremely small and there was no indication for mutagenic potential in vitro concerning induction of gene mutations or clastogenic effects. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
In the endoscopy clinic, the use of flumazenil was perceived by clinicians to significantly improve the speed and quality of recovery. Expand
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