Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration

  title={Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration},
  author={H. Kuhl},
  pages={3 - 63}
  • H. Kuhl
  • Published 2005
  • Medicine
  • Climacteric
  • This review comprises the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens used in contraception and therapy, with special consideration of hormone replacement therapy. [...] Key Method The effects of oral, transdermal (patch and gel), intranasal, sublingual, buccal, vaginal, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of estrogens, as well as of oral, vaginal, transdermal, intranasal, buccal, intramuscular and intrauterine application of progestogens are discussed…Expand Abstract
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