Phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors cause proinflammatory effects in vivo.
N-(3,5-Dichloro-1-oxido-4-pyridinyl)-8-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-5-quinoline carboxamide (SCH 351591) has been identified as a potent (IC(50) = 58 nM) and highly selective type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor with oral bioactivity in several animal models of lung inflammation. N-(3,5-Dichloro-4-pyridinyl)-8-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)-5-quinoline carboxamide (SCH 365351), the only significant in vivo metabolite, is also a potent and highly selective PDE4 inhibitor (IC(50) = 20 nM). Both SCH 351591 and SCH 365351 inhibited cytokine production in human blood mononuclear cell preparations. Oral SCH 351591 significantly attenuated allergen-induced eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity in allergic guinea pigs at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. In this model, oral SCH 365351 showed similar potency. When SCH 351591 was administered orally to allergic cynomolgus monkeys at 3 mg/kg, Ascaris suum-induced lung eosinophilia was blocked. Hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm in nonallergic guinea pigs, a model for exercise-induced asthma, was also suppressed significantly by oral SCH 351591 at 0.3 mg/kg. Cilomilast (SB 207499; Ariflo), a PDE4 inhibitor currently being developed for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was 10- to 30-fold less potent than SCH 351591 at inhibiting guinea pig lung eosinophilia and hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm. In a ferret model of emesis, maximum nonemetic oral doses of SCH 351591 and cilomilast were 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. Comparison of plasma levels at these nonemetic doses in ferrets to those at doses inhibiting hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs gave a therapeutic ratio of 16 for SCH 351591 and 4 for cilomilast. Thus, SCH 351591 exhibits a promising preclinical profile as a treatment for asthma and COPD.