The role of cytokine responses during influenza virus pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options.
- John R Teijaro
- Current topics in microbiology and immunology
AbstractPrevious studies on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) using various approaches have shown that both the molecules can act as intercellular signaling molecules. The discovery of the Edg subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (later renamed LPA1–3 and S1P1–5) for these molecules has opened up a new avenue for pathophysiological research on lysophospholipids. Genetic and molecular studies on lysophospholipid GPCRs have elucidated pathophysiological impacts and roles in cellular signaling pathways. Recently, lysophospholipid GPCR genes have been used to develop receptor subtype-selective agonists and antagonists. The discovery of FTY720, a novel immune modulator, along with other chemical tools, has provided a means of elucidating the functions of each lysophospholipid GPCR on an organ and the whole body level. This communication attempts to retrospectively review the development of agonists and antagonists for lysophospholipid GPCRs, provide integrated information on pharmacological tools for lysophospholipid GPCR signaling, and speculate on future drug development.