Pharmacological Properties of Glycine Transport in the Frog Retina

  title={Pharmacological Properties of Glycine Transport in the Frog Retina},
  author={Jorge Alberto P{\'e}rez-Le{\'o}n and Estuardo L{\'o}pez‐Vera and Roc{\'i}o Salceda},
  journal={Neurochemical Research},
The high-affinity glycine transport in neurons and glial cells is the primary means for inactivating synaptic glycine. Two different glycine transporter genes, Glyt-1 and Glyt-2, have been cloned. Glyt-1 has been reported to occur in the retina, but there is no evidence for expression of the Glyt-2 transporter. We have pharmacologically characterized glycine transport in the frog retina. 3H-Glycine uptake in the retina was insensitive to modulation by phorbol esters or changes in cAMP levels… Expand
Pharmacological properties of glycine uptake in the developing rat retina
  • R. Salceda
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Neurochemistry International
  • 2006
The results suggest that the Glyt1 transporter was concentrated in the nerve terminals of the retina, and provided evidence of the occurrence of Glyt2 and/or another isoform of glycine transporter, which might have had a role in the retina development. Expand
Glycine transporters (glycine transporter 1 and glycine transporter 2) are expressed in retina
In-situ hybridization signals were observed in the ganglionar and inner nuclear layer as well as in the outer nuclear layer of the frog and rat retinas and accumulation of 3H-glycine was observed in isolated photoreceptor cells. Expand
Differential distribution of glycine transporters in Müller cells and neurons in amphibian retinas
The results indicated that GlyT1- and GlyT2-like transporters were present in Müller cells and neurons, respectively, which is consistent with the general pattern that Gly T1-liketransporters are present in Muller cells and Gly T2- like transportters in neurons in amphibian retinas. Expand
Expression of glycine receptor and transporter on bullfrog retinal Müller cells
Findings suggest that Müller cells may be involved in modulation of glycinergic transmission by reciprocal interactions with retinal neurons through GlyR and GlyT. Expand
Functional expression of the glycine transporter 1 on bullfrog retinal cones
Results show for the first time the functional expression of GlyT1 on bullfrog cones in bullfrog retinal slices. Expand
Characterization of glycinergic synapses in vertebrate retinas.
The function and mechanism of glycinergic synapses in retinas are described, and immunocytochemical studies identify glycine receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 and beta) in retina, forming picrotoxin-sensitive alpha-homomeric and picroToxin-insensitive alpha/beta-heteromeric receptors. Expand
Glycine transport accounts for the differential role of glycine vs. d‐serine at NMDA receptor coagonist sites in the salamander retina
In this study, we demonstrate that d‐serine interacts with N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist sites of retinal ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina by showing that exogenousExpand
Endogenous expression of the glycine transporter 2 in C6 glioma cells: a preliminary study
Evidence that in addition to GlyT1, GlyT2 is also endogenously expressed in C6 glioma cells is provided, which will help researchers to carefully evaluate use of this cell line in studies involving GlyT 1. Expand
D-serine: A study of its function and regulation in the retina
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. Major: Neuroscience. Advisor: Robert F. Miller, MD. 1 computer file (PDF); v, 130 pages. Ill. (some col.)


Transport Is the Primary Determinant of Glycine Content in Retinal Neurons
  • D. Pow
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of neurochemistry
  • 1998
It is demonstrated that in mammalian and nonmammalian species it is possible to deplete selectively and reversibly retinal glycinergic neurons of their content of glycine by exposure to sarcosine, a competitive inhibitor of glycines transporter 1 (glyt‐1), and suggested that such glycine may be derived from the vitreous humor and that in turn this glycine might bederived from the peripheral circulation. Expand
Expression of glycine and the glycine transporter Glyt-1 in the developing rat retina
Diverse mechanisms and transient roles for glycine in the developing rat retina are suggested, including a subpopulation of amacrine cells are prominently immunoreactive for both glycine and glyt-1 in the adult rat retina. Expand
Distribution of the glycine transporter glyt-1 in mammalian and nonmammalian retinae.
In monkeys, cats, and rats, populations of cells which the authors interpret as being glycine-containing interplexiform cells expressed glyt-1: these cells lacked a content of glutamate, suggesting they are not bipolar cells. Expand
Glycine transporters are differentially expressed among CNS cells
Immunoblots show that GLYT1 is expressed at the highest concentrations in the spinal cord, brainstem, diencephalon, and retina, and, in a lesser degree, to the olfactory bulb and brain hemispheres, whereas it is not detected in peripheral tissues. Expand
Cloning and expression of a spinal cord- and brain-specific glycine transporter with novel structural features.
The experimental data suggests GLYT2 might play a major role in the termination of the inhibitory effect of glycine in the brain stem and spinal cord of vertebrates. Expand
Regulation by phorbol esters of the glycine transporter (GLYT1) in glioblastoma cells.
Incubation of C6 cells with TPA led to concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the glycine transport that could be completely suppressed by the addition of the PKC inhibitor staurosporine, and the TPA effect could be mimicked by oleoylacetylglycerol and exogenous phospholipase C. Expand
Differential Properties of Two Stably Expressed Brain‐Specific Glycine Transporters
Clonal cell lines stably expressing the glial glycine transporter 1b and the neuronal glycineporter 2 from rat brain have been generated and used comparatively to examine their kinetics, ion dependence, and electrical properties. Expand
Neuronal and Glial Glycine Transporters Have Different Stoichiometries
It is shown that GlyT2a, a transporter present in glycinergic boutons, has a stoichiometry of 3 Na+/Cl-/glycine, which predicts effective glycine accumulation in all physiological conditions, and may thus modulate glutamatergic synapses by increasing or decreasing the glycine concentration around N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Expand
Glycine transport into plasma-membrane vesicles derived from rat brain synaptosomes.
The existence of a high-affinity, Na+-dependent glycine-uptake system in membrane vesicles derived from rat brain suggests that this amino acid may have a transmitter role in some areas of the rat brain. Expand
Cloning and expression of a glycine transporter reveal colocalization with NMDA receptors
Northern blot analysis indicates that the distribution of the mRNA encoding the glycine transporter is restricted to the nervous system, and in situ hybridization data are consistent with roles for the transporter in both glycine neurotransmission and glycine modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the hippocampus. Expand