Pharmacological Control of Acute Agitation

  title={Pharmacological Control of Acute Agitation},
  author={Dan L. Zimbroff},
  journal={CNS Drugs},
Acute agitation in the psychiatric emergency setting is a common presentation, which can endanger the patient, caregivers and professional staff. Rapid and effective treatment, followed by ongoing evaluation and maintenance treatment where appropriate, is key to circumvent negative outcomes. Nonpharmacological measures are the first step in treating the acutely agitated patient, and include verbal intervention and physical restraint. Pharmacological treatment is often required to ensure the… 
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Oral administered second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have been shown to be at least as effective in managing acute agitation as conventional antipsychotic drugs, with a superior tolerability profile.
Emergency management of agitation in schizophrenia.
Managing the agitated psychotic patient: a reappraisal of the evidence.
  • M. Allen
  • Medicine
    The Journal of clinical psychiatry
  • 2000
The author reviews all controlled studies of medication treatment of agitation that have appeared in English since the advent of the neuroleptic medications and proposes that the emergency management of the agitated patient be viewed as a brief departure from the usual physician-patient collaboration.
Clinical perspectives on atypical antipsychotics for treatment of agitation.
  • E. Caine
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Journal of clinical psychiatry
  • 2006
Intramuscular and oral atypical antipsychotics effectively treat acute agitation in both emergency and long-term care settings and are valid therapeutic options for acute as well as longer-term alleviation of manic symptoms, including agitation for bipolar patients.
Managing the aggressive and violent patient in the psychiatric emergency
Continuum of care: stabilizing the acutely agitated patient.
  • Terrance Bellnier
  • Psychology, Medicine
    American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2002
Clinical trials showed that both i.m. olanzapine and ziprasidone show promise for treating acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia, especially because of their safer adverse effect profile and faster onset of effectiveness compared with haloperidol.
Best Clinical Practice With Ziprasidone IM: Update After 2 Years of Experience
In clinical trials, patients treated with ziprasidone IM demonstrated significant and rapid reduction in agitation and improvement in psychotic symptoms, agitation, and hostility to an extent greater than or equal to that attained with haloperidol IM.