Pharmacologic management of pain at the end of life.

  title={Pharmacologic management of pain at the end of life.},
  author={Hunter Groninger and Jaya Vijayan},
  journal={American family physician},
  volume={90 1},
Although many patients experience debilitating pain at the end of life, there are many options to improve analgesia and quality of life. Pain assessment using a validated tool, with attention to patient function and specific goals, helps tailor individual treatment plans. The World Health Organization pain ladder offers a stepwise guideline for approaching pain management. However, for many patients with terminal illness, strong opioids are necessary for efficient and effective analgesia… CONTINUE READING
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