Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom.

@article{White2018PharmacologicAC,
  title={Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom.},
  author={C. Michael White},
  journal={American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists},
  year={2018},
  volume={75 5},
  pages={
          261-267
        }
}
  • C. White
  • Published 1 March 2018
  • Medicine
  • American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
PURPOSE This article reviews the pharmacology, clinical utility, adverse effects, and abuse potential of kratom. SUMMARY The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa contain the biologically active alkaloids of kratom. Kratom exerts opioid and α-2 receptor agonistic effects as well as antiinflammatory and parasympathetic-impeding effects. There are no published human pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, or drug interaction studies on kratom or mitragynine, making it virtually impossible to fully understand… Expand
Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom: An update.
  • C. White
  • Medicine
  • American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2019
TLDR
Kratom has a unique pharmacologic profile that might offer advantages over other opioids, but its high abuse liability, potential for drug interactions and adverse events, and inadequate research into the balance of benefits to harm are concerning. Expand
A Case of Kratom-induced Seizures
TLDR
A case of kratom-induced tonic-clonic seizures in a 27-year-old Caucasian male with a psychiatric history of anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, benzodiazepine use disorder, and opioid use disorder is reported, highlighting the life-threatening complications of Kratom that is easily available online. Expand
The Potential for Kratom as an Antidepressant and Antipsychotic
TLDR
The dire need for further research to be conducted on kratom, its mechanism of action and the constituents that elicit these antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic properties is highlighted. Expand
Kratom: Implications for Health Care Providers.
TLDR
Health care providers need to be familiar with the pharmacology, adverse effects, and problems associated with kratom ingestion when caring for individuals. Expand
Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine, a major analgesic alkaloid in kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): A systematic review.
TLDR
Rudimentary pharmacokinetics of mitragynine was described in this systematic review, however, the discovered studies provided scant information on the role of metabolism and redistribution into tissues nor the rate of excretion. Expand
Drugs of Abuse and the Nervous System.
TLDR
It is important for the practicing neurologist to possess awareness of the features and observed sequelae of the toxidromes of both traditional and nontraditional drugs of abuse because the use of both is widespread in the authors' society and conventional drug screening can miss detection of some powerful agents, thus forcing us to maintain a high index of suspicion based on recognition of the clinical features. Expand
Pharmacotherapy for Management of 'Kratom Use Disorder': A Systematic Literature Review With Survey of Experts.
TLDR
This first comprehensive review to examine the existing literature referring to management of KUD in combination with a survey of current experts' clinical consensus regarding pharmacological management finds it seems reasonable to extend the indication for MOUD to cases of moderate to severe KUD. Expand
DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Kratom.
TLDR
The traditional and medicinal uses of kratom are reviewed along with the synthesis of its bioactive ingredients, their pharmacology, metabolism, and structure-activity relationships, and the importance in society of this currently controversial substance are discussed. Expand
Mitragyna speciosa: Clinical, Toxicological Aspects and Analysis in Biological and Non-Biological Samples
TLDR
The main goal of this review is to understand the origin, chemistry, consumption, and analytical methodologies for analysis and mechanism of action of kratom, to aid health professionals, toxicologists, and police authorities in cases where this plant is present. Expand
Kratom and General Anesthesia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
TLDR
This is the first reported case of an anesthetic in a patient using kratom for chronic pain, and both the US Food and Drug Administration and the Drug Enforcement Agency warn against the use of kratom. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects
TLDR
Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Expand
Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom)
TLDR
Findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug. Expand
Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis
Abstract Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available inExpand
From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction
Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currentlyExpand
A Case Report of Inpatient Detoxification after Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Dependence
TLDR
These observations support the idea that kratom dependence syndrome is due to short-acting opioid receptor agonist activity, and suggest that dihydrocodeine and lofexidine are effective in supporting detoxification. Expand
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.
TLDR
The findings from this study show that regular Kratom use is associated with drug dependency, development of withdrawal symptoms, and craving that become more severe with prolonged use and suggest a stronger control of the drug. Expand
Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.
TLDR
CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. Expand
P01-50-Kratom and alcohol dependence: Clinical symptoms, withdrawal treatment and pharmacological mechanisms- A case report
TLDR
The patient's selfmedication with kratom prevented alcohol withdrawal symptoms most probably by action on μ-opioidreceptors, and withdrawl treatment with doxepine clearly prevented withdrawal symptoms of dependence of kratom and alcohol. Expand
Social Functioning of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Users in Malaysia
TLDR
It is suggested that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods of time. Expand
How MDMA's Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics Drive Desired Effects and Harms
TLDR
The desirable and adverse effects of MDMA are extensions of its fascinating pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic profile and are needed for education, prevention of harm, and treatment. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...