Pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid in healthy dogs and assessment of its antifibrinolytic properties in canine blood.

  title={Pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid in healthy dogs and assessment of its antifibrinolytic properties in canine blood.},
  author={Katie E. Osekavage and Benjamin M. Brainard and Selena L Lane and Mohammed Almoslem and Robert D. Arnold and Amie Koenig},
  journal={American journal of veterinary research},
  volume={79 10},
OBJECTIVE To assess pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid (TXA) in dogs and assess antifibrinolytic properties of TXA in canine blood by use of a thromboelastography-based in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs received each of 4 TXA treatments (10 mg/kg, IV; 20 mg/kg, IV; approx 15 mg/kg, PO; and approx 20 mg/kg, PO) in a randomized crossover-design study. Blood samples were collected at baseline (time 0; immediately prior to drug administration) and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effect of 50 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid on coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in healthy Beagle dogs.

Tranexamic acid can safely be administered to healthy dogs with normal coagulation profiles without inducing a hypercoagulable clot and APTEM parameters measured in the current study do not support the use of this test in dogs.

Effect of early administration of tranexamic acid on ongoing haemorrhage in dogs with non-surgically treated haemoabdomen.

It is concluded that other mechanisms than antifibrinolytic therapy was responsible for cessation of bleeding in the majority of patients.

Retrospective analysis of the use of tranexamic acid in critically ill dogs and cats (2018-2019): 266 dogs and 28 cats.

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is primarily utilized in critically ill dogs and cats diagnosed with neoplasia, bleeding disorders, and trauma at this institution.

Prospective, controlled, blinded, randomized crossover trial evaluating the effect of maropitant versus ondansetron on inhibiting tranexamic acid-evoked emesis.

The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist maropitant at the dose used, administered IV 10 minutes before 50 mg/kg TXA, was effective in preventing vomiting compared with ondansetron and placebo, and this results support the prophylactic IV administration ofmaropitant in dogs that are scheduled to receive TXA.

A review of hyperfibrinolysis in cats and dogs.

The diagnosis of hyperfibrinolysis is challenging and, until recently, has relied on techniques that are not readily available outside referral hospitals, but the recent development of point-of-care viscoelastic techniques will provide the opportunity to target haemorrhage due to hyperfibinolytic disorder with antifibrinoslytic drugs and thereby reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

Hemostatic Dysfunction in Dogs Naturally Infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum—A Narrative Review

This narrative review aims to describe Angiostrongylus vasorum-induced hemostatic dysfunction of dogs with emphasis on clinical and laboratory findings as well as potential therapeutic strategies for

Toxicity, outcome, and management of anthracycline overdoses in 16 dogs

Toxicities, treatments, and overall outcome after anthracycline OD in dogs, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenIA, anemia, diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and nausea are described.

Volume Resuscitation in the Acutely Hemorrhaging Patient: Historic Use to Current Applications

Current understanding of the resuscitation of the acutely hemorrhaging small animal (dog and cat) veterinary patient is described through evaluation of pre-clinical canine models of hemorrhage and resuscitation, clinical research in dogs and cats, and selected extrapolation from human medicine.

A Common Missense Variant Causing Factor XI Deficiency and Increased Bleeding Tendency in Maine Coon Cats

The common missense variant FXI-V516M causes a cross-reactive material positive FXI deficiency in MCCs that is associated with mild-moderate bleeding tendencies and genotyping is recommended prior to invasive procedures or breeding.

Successful surgical and medical treatment of a severe, acute epidural bleed in a young dog due to steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis

This is the first report in which medical and surgical treatment were combined in a patient with SRMA and it highlights the possibility of performing a successful surgical intervention despite the need for immunosuppressive therapy.



Assessment of the relationships among coagulopathy, hyperfibrinolysis, plasma lactate, and protein C in dogs with spontaneous hemoperitoneum.

Dogs with SHP have evidence of hypocoagulability, protein C deficiency, and hyperfibrinolysis, and activation of protein C may be a common feature to both syndromes.

Evaluation of tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid concentrations required to inhibit fibrinolysis in plasma of dogs and humans.

Results supported the concept that dogs are hyperfibrinolytic, compared with humans, and higher doses of EACA and TEA may be required to fully inhibit fibrino-lysis in dogs.

Acute traumatic coagulopathy

Conventional concepts of traumatic coagulopathy as a late occurring condition in response to iatrogenic haemodilution are redundant and ATC is an endogenous impairment of haemostasis that begins at the moment of injury.

Tranexamic Acid

While high-quality published evidence is limited for some approved indications, tranexamic acid is an effective and well tolerated antifibrinolytic agent.

Effects of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid on hematological, hemostatic, and thromboelastographic analytes in healthy adult dogs.

Its effect on TEG A30, A60, LY30, and LY60 values was inconsistent with its expected anti-fibrinolytic properties, however, its effect on hematological, hemostatic, and thromboelastographic analytes remained within their reference intervals.

Correlation of hematocrit, platelet concentration, and plasma coagulation factors with results of thromboelastometry in canine whole blood samples.

TEM of canine blood samples appeared to be affected by abnormalities of coagulation factors, platelet concentrations, and RBC mass, whereas other variables were dependent on platelet and fibrinogen concentrations.

Prospective multicenter evaluation of coagulation abnormalities in dogs following severe acute trauma.

In dogs with severe traumatic injuries and hypoperfusion, measurement of thromboelastography and aPTT should be considered to support clinical assessments in predicting the need for blood product administration and nonsurvival.

Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid as an emetic in dogs.

Vomiting frequency was ≤ 2 episodes, and vomiting concluded ≤ 250 seconds after administration, and the antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid decreased in a time-dependent manner and was resolved ≤ 24 hours after administration.

Differentiating disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with the fibrinolytic phenotype from coagulopathy of trauma and acute coagulopathy of trauma‐shock (COT/ACOTS)

Information is suggested that COT/ACOTS is not a new concept but a disease entity similar to or the same as DIC with the fibrinolytic phenotype, which is probably incorrect.