Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man

  title={Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man},
  author={Satariya Trakulsrichai and Korbtham Sathirakul and Saranya Auparakkitanon and Jatupon Krongvorakul and Jetjamnong Sueajai and Nantida Noumjad and Chonlaphat Sukasem and Winai Wananukul},
  journal={Drug Design, Development and Therapy},
  pages={2421 - 2429}
Background Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.), is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Mitragynine in Beagle Dogs.
The results provide the first detailed pharmacokinetic information for mitragynine in a non-rodent species (the dog) and therefore provide significant information for allometric scaling and dose predictions when designing clinical studies.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitragynine, the principle alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa: present knowledge and future directions in perspective of pain
Abstract Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Ketum or Biak in Malaysia and Kratom in Thailand, is a native plant to Southeast Asia and has various pharmacological benefits. Mitragynine (MG) is the
The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse
There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use.
Clinical Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a Botanical Product with Opioid-like Effects, in Healthy Adult Participants
This first comprehensive pharmacokinetic characterization of kratom alkaloids in humans provides the foundation for further research to establish safety and effectiveness of this emerging botanical product.
Mitragyna speciosa: Clinical, Toxicological Aspects and Analysis in Biological and Non-Biological Samples
The main goal of this review is to understand the origin, chemistry, consumption, and analytical methodologies for analysis and mechanism of action of kratom, to aid health professionals, toxicologists, and police authorities in cases where this plant is present.
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth) for a New Medicinal: a Review of Pharmacological and Compound Analysis
Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae) a tree found in Southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. Traditionally, the Mitragyna speciosa was used to
eview eurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine arah
Current researchs on its main indole alkaloid, mitragynine suggest both therapeutic and addictive potential but further research on its molecular effects is needed.
The Potential for Kratom as an Antidepressant and Antipsychotic
The dire need for further research to be conducted on kratom, its mechanism of action and the constituents that elicit these antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic properties is highlighted.


Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects
Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.
Intrahepatic Cholestasis Following Abuse of Powdered Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa)
A case of a young man who presented with jaundice and pruritus after intake of kratom for 2 weeks in the absence of any other causative agent is described, the first published case of intrahepatic cholestasis after kratom abuse.
Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.
The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-mETHoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps.
Acute Toxicity Study of Standardized Mitragyna speciosa Korth Aqueous Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats
The standardized MS aqueous extract did not cause any lethality and only caused slight toxic effects, and Histological examination showed steatosis and centrilobular necrosis only on several parts of the liver for the treated group.
A study of kratom eaters in Thailand.
Thirty male and female cases of kratom addiction were selected from the Nondhaburi province and from the suburbs of Bangkok for the purpose of an intensive study, and the interview method was used with a questionnaire consisting of 30 items.
Evaluation of the Effects of Mitragyna speciosa Alkaloid Extract on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Using a High Throughput Assay
The results indicated that MSE has the most potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, with apparent half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78 and 0.636 µg/mL, respectively.