Pharmacokinetics of ketamine in plasma and milk of mature Holstein cows.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ketamine in mature Holstein cows following administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose. Plasma and milk concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental method. Following i.v. administration, plasma T(max) was 0.083 h and plasma C(max) was 18,135 ± 22,720 ng/mL. Plasma AUC was 4484 ± 1,398 ng·h/mL. Plasma t(½β) was 1.80 ± 0.50 h and mean residence time was 0.794 ± 0.318 h with total body clearance of 1.29 ± 0.70 L/h/kg. The mean plasma steady-state volume of distribution was calculated as 0.990 ± 0.530 L/kg and volume of distribution based on area was calculated as 3.23 ± 1.51 L/kg. The last measurable time for ketamine detection in plasma was 8.0 h with a mean concentration of 24.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL. Milk T(max) was detected at 0.67 ± 0.26 h with C(max) of 2495 ± 904 ng/mL. Milk AUC till the last time was 6593 ± 2617 ng·h/mL with mean AUC milk to AUC plasma ratio of 1.99 ± 2.15. The last measurable time that ketamine was detected in milk was 44 ± 10.0 h with a mean concentration of 16.0 ± 9.0 ng/mL.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2010.01159.x

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@article{Sellers2010PharmacokineticsOK, title={Pharmacokinetics of ketamine in plasma and milk of mature Holstein cows.}, author={Glen Sellers and H C. Lin and Malcolm Riddell and William R. Ravis and Yi-Tsung Lin and Sue H Duran and Matthew D Givens}, journal={Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics}, year={2010}, volume={33 5}, pages={480-4} }