Extralabel use of anesthetic and analgesic compounds in cattle.
- Geof Smith
- The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ketamine in mature Holstein cows following administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) dose. Plasma and milk concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental method. Following i.v. administration, plasma T(max) was 0.083 h and plasma C(max) was 18,135 ± 22,720 ng/mL. Plasma AUC was 4484 ± 1,398 ng·h/mL. Plasma t(½β) was 1.80 ± 0.50 h and mean residence time was 0.794 ± 0.318 h with total body clearance of 1.29 ± 0.70 L/h/kg. The mean plasma steady-state volume of distribution was calculated as 0.990 ± 0.530 L/kg and volume of distribution based on area was calculated as 3.23 ± 1.51 L/kg. The last measurable time for ketamine detection in plasma was 8.0 h with a mean concentration of 24.9 ± 11.8 ng/mL. Milk T(max) was detected at 0.67 ± 0.26 h with C(max) of 2495 ± 904 ng/mL. Milk AUC till the last time was 6593 ± 2617 ng·h/mL with mean AUC milk to AUC plasma ratio of 1.99 ± 2.15. The last measurable time that ketamine was detected in milk was 44 ± 10.0 h with a mean concentration of 16.0 ± 9.0 ng/mL.