Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine: A Systematic Analysis of Reported Data for Application in Metabolic Phenotyping and Liver Function Testing

@article{Grzegorzewski2021PharmacokineticsOC,
  title={Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine: A Systematic Analysis of Reported Data for Application in Metabolic Phenotyping and Liver Function Testing},
  author={Jan Grzegorzewski and Florian Bartsch and Adrian K{\"o}ller and Matthias K{\"o}nig},
  journal={Frontiers in Pharmacology},
  year={2021},
  volume={12}
}
Caffeine is by far the most ubiquitous psychostimulant worldwide found in tea, coffee, cocoa, energy drinks, and many other beverages and food. Caffeine is almost exclusively metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system to the main product paraxanthine and the additional products theobromine and theophylline. Besides its stimulating properties, two important applications of caffeine are metabolic phenotyping of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and liver function testing. An open… 
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