Pharmacokinetics and Potency of Progestins used for Hormone Replacement Therapy and Contraception

  title={Pharmacokinetics and Potency of Progestins used for Hormone Replacement Therapy and Contraception},
  author={Frank Z. Stanczyk},
  journal={Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders},
  • F. Stanczyk
  • Published 1 September 2002
  • Medicine
  • Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

  • A. Burke
  • Medicine
    Patient preference and adherence
  • 2013
The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol.

Tailoring combination oral contraceptives to the individual woman.

Assisted counseling to raise awareness of the specific characteristics of the different COC options available may optimize adherence and patient acceptability and offer improvements over their predecessors.

Contraceptive progestins with androgenic properties stimulate breast epithelial cell proliferation

Different progestins have distinct biological activities in the breast epithelium to be considered for more informed choices in hormonal contraception.

Contraception for women with epilepsy: counseling, choices, and concerns

  • A. Reimers
  • Medicine
    Open access journal of contraception
  • 2016
Concerns are loss of bone mineral density and increased seizure activity due to hormonal effects and several studies show that a large proportion of WWE do not take their medicines regularly.

Estrogens, progestins, and risk of breast cancer.

There is a ceiling to the carcinogenic effect of estrogen on the breast; increases in nonsex hormone-binding globulin-bound estradiol (non-SHBG bound E2) exceeding approximately 10.2 pg/ml have no effect on breast cancer risk; this ceiling is lower than the lowest level seen during the menstrual cycle.

New progestagens for contraceptive use.

Several new progestins, including dienogest (DNG), drospirenone (DRSP), Nestorone (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been synthesized in the last two decades, designed to have no androgenic or estrogenic actions and to be closer to the physiological hormone P.

The woman patient after WHI.

An overview of menopausal oestrogen–progestin hormone therapy and breast cancer risk

Results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial support findings from observational studies that oestrogen–progestin therapy (EPT) use is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. We

Duration of oral contraceptive use relates to cognitive performance and brain activation in current and past users

The current findings suggest a key role of the progestogenic component of OCs in both tasks, and the influence of OC use on verbal fluency remains even after discontinuation which further points out the importance of future studies on OC effects and their reversibility.

Norethindrone alters growth, sex differentiation and gene expression in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

It is shown that NET could influence growth, sex differentiation and gonadal maturation and significantly alter the transcriptional expression levels of HPG axis‐related genes.



Progestational potency of oral contraceptives: a polemic.

A polemic involving progestational potency of oral contraceptives (OCs) is discussed, and possible relationships between OCs and specific side effects must be studied in relationship to individual side effects and particular OC products.